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47 Cards in this Set

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Steps of different steps n the pathogenesis of an infectious disease...
encounter, entry, spread/multiplication,damage and outcome
Encountering the microbe
enviroment is a key issue
e.g. - panama canal -malaria
poor sewerage and sanitation- cholera, typhoid, Salmonella
rodent infestation- bubonic plague
entry: protective barrrier
skin
pulmonary defense mechanism
GI barriers
Spread and multiplication
time frame determines the incubation period oftern referrred to as teh prodromal period when the infection is characterized by nonspecific symptoms (fever, chill, malaise)
damage
tissue damage
bacgteria secrete toxins that result in a # of adverse effects.
two major types of toxins
endotoxins
exotoxins
endotoxins lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
gram negative bacteria
actual component of teh microbe and it may be released or shed during its destruction
It is a powerful activator of immune responses- SUPERantigen
causes cytokine release, fever and shock when released in large amounts
exotoxin
spore forming microbe C
botulinum secretes an exotoxin
tetanospasmin
botulinum
tetanospasmin- exotoxins
blocks the release of inhibitory transmitter like glycine and GABA from spinal neurons - results in spastic paralysis
Botulinum toxin
prevents the release of ACH and result in paralysis
used cosmetically BOYX
enterotoxin
s aureus releases and results in food poisoning
-diphtheria toxin
-cholera toxin
-anthrax toxins
we are often immunized with toxoids to precent their effects
toxin genes are often located in the _______________ !
plamids
Clostridium perfringens
causes gangrene
release phospholipase C and this destroys cell membrances
the massive and uncontrolled release of cytokines from immune effector cells and/or the activation of complement proteins can also results in serious clinical problems
Outcome
either the microbe or the host wins- there is usually peaceful coexsitence
in many cases survival from an acute bacterial or viral encounter often induces long term immunity- the basis of vaccinations
baterical virulence mechanism
adherence
invasion
by products of growth
toxins (degradative enzymes, AB toxins)
endotoxins
superantigen
induction of excess inflammation
evasion of phagocytic and immune clearance
resistance to antibiotics
Host defense mechanisms
normal flora
skin, GI secretions
cells- neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, macrophages, t-cells, b-cells, plasma cells
cytokines incling monokines, chemokines, and lymphokines
antibodies
complement protiens
bacteria shapes and sizes
bacillus
coccus
spiral
bacillus
rod shaped
single
sporeformer
stertoballis (chain)
coccus
sphere
single
dipiococcus
tetrad
staphlococccous
stetpcoccocu (chain)
spiral
spitillum
spirochete
vibrio (comma shaped)
gram stain
crystal violet
purple color tf= P-purple positive

other stains can be used--- TB(mycobacterium) is colored with acid-fast stains
Group A steptococci (s pyogenes)
gram stained chaing of purple sheres
cause Scarlett and rheumatic fever, necrotizing facitis, and toxic shock
clinical features of an infectious disease
inflmmation
fever
leucocytosis
inflammation
tumor
ruor
dolor
calor
fever
a result of pyrogens including IL- 1 and 6 (remember that drugs And neoplasms can also cause fever)
leucocytosis
an increase in WBCs, both mature and band forms
Gram + cocci
Streptococcus pneumonia
step. pyogenes (group A strp)
Strep agalactiae ( Group B step)
staphlococcus aureus
staph epidermidis
Strep pneumonia
causes pneumonia, otitis media and meningitis
Strep pyogenes- group A
pharyngitis, rheumatic fever
Strp agalactiae- group B
neonatal sepsis, meningitis
stephlococcus aureus
food poisoning
staph epidermidis
catheter and prosthetic infections
Gram negative cocci
neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus), meningitis, septicemia
N. gonorrhea (gonococcus): urethritis/cervicitis, PID
Gram positive bacilli
rod shaped
corynebacterium diptheria
baillus antracis- anthrax
c. botulinum, tetany, perfiringens: botulism, tetany, gas gangrene
C diff: antibiotic- associated GI diseases including diarrhea to colitis
NB Bacillus and clostridial organims
spore formers
can persist in the environment for long periods of time
Gram negatice rods
e coli
shigella
salmonella
yersinia pestix
vibrio cholera
h. pylori
pseudomonas aeruginosa
bordetella pertussis
e coli
diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis
shigella
bloody diarrhea
salmonella
typhoid fever
yersinia pestia
bubonic plague
vibrio cholera
cholera
h pylori
ulcers
pseudomonas aeruginosa
pneumonia, nosocomial acquired or CF
Bordetella pertussis
whooping cough
acid fast bacteria
mycobacterium TB
M leprae- lerpsy
M avium- infects liver and bone marrow- problem with AIDS
Spirochetes
treponema pallidum- syphyllis
borrelia burgdoorferi- lyme disease
Chlamydia and rickettsia
these bactera are small and gain access to the cell interior
- chlamydia trachomatis - conjunctivitis, STD
- Rickettsia: rocky mountain spotted fever
intera cellular organism- very small and get into the cell
similar to virsus