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97 Cards in this Set

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What activates NK cells
INF-B, IFN-a, IL12
2 signals for helper Th (CD4) cell activation
1. (APC) MHC II - Ag - TCR (T)
2. (APC) B27 - CD28 (T)
2 signals needed for cytotoxic T cell activation
1. (any cell) MHC I - Ag - TCR (T)
2. IL2 (Th1) -> IL2R (CD8)
Signals needed for B cell activation and class switching
1. (B) CD40R -> CD40L (T)
2/3. (B cell) MHC II - Ag - TCR
4. Th2 -> IL4, IL5, IL6
5. Costimulatory (B) B7-CD28 (T)
Cell surface markers of regulatory T cells
CD3 (all T cells)
CD4
CD25 (low affinity IL-2 R )
Cytokines produced by regulator T cells (regulatory cytokines)
IL-10
TGF-B
What inhibits Th1 cells
IL-10 secreted by Th2 cells
What inhibits Th2 cells
IFN-y secreted by Th1 cells
What do Th1 cells secrete?
IL-2 -> activates CTL
IFN-y -> activates macrophages and inhibits Th2 cells
What do Th2 cell secrete?
IL-4 -> class switch IgE > IgG
IL-5 -> class switch IgA
IL-6 -> fever (Acute phase reactant) also secreted by macs

IL-10 -> inhibits Th1 cells
What do macrophages secrete?
IL-1
IL-6
TNF-a
IL-8
IL-12
what are the acute phase reactants?
IL-1
IL-6
TNF-a
Chemotactic molecules
IL-8
C5a
LTB4
Formyl-Met peptides
What is secreted by all T cells?
IL-3 -> supports growth and differentiation of BM stem cells. Functions like GM-CSF
HOT T-Bone stEAk
IL-1 - fever (hot)
IL-2 - stimulates CTL cells (T)
IL-3 -stimulates BM (bone)
IL-4 - IgE ( and IgG)
IL-5 - IgA
What recruits Neutrophils?
IL-8 secreted by macrophages
IL-6
pyrogen -> fever
Also sec by T cells
stimulates production of acute-phase proteins
IL-8
Chemotactic for neutrophils
IL-12
Induces differentiation of T cells into Th1 cells. Activates NK cells. Also secreted by B cells
What induces activation of NK cells?
IL-12
IFN-a
IFN-b
What induces differentiation of T cells into Th1 cells?
IL-12
TNF-a
mediates septic shock. Activates endothelium. Causes leukocyte recruitment, vascular leak
what stimulates growth and diff of eosinophils?
IL-5 secreted by Th2 cells
What do IFNs do?
Anti-viral state: induce production of ribonuclease that inhibits viral protein synthesis by degrading viral mRNA (but not host mRNA)
IFN-a and IFN-b
activates NK cells
inhibit viral protein synthesis
IFN-y
activates macrophages and Th1 cells, suppress Th2 cells
Increase MHC I and MHC II expression and antigen presentation in all cells
What makes IFN-a
Leukocytes
What makes IFN-b
Fibroblasts
What makes IFN-y
Th1 cells
What makes TGF-b
T-lymphocytes, platelets (atherosclerosis), macrophages, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, keratinocytes
Functions of C1, C2, C3, C4
Viral neutralization
C3b function
Opsonization
C3a, C5a
Anaphylaxis
C5a
neutrophil chemotaxis
C5b-9
Membrane attack complex (MAC), cytolyis
CD55 and CD59
on macrophages - Make up DAF! (decay accelerating factor) -> PNH
DAF fxn
helps prevent complement activation on self cells (eg RBCs)
C1 esterase inhibitor Fxn
Helps prevent complement activation on self cells. C1 esterase inhibits C1 cleavage
C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency
hereditary angioedema. ACEIs contraindicated (increase bradykinin, decrease C2, Decrease C4)
C3 deficiency
increased susceptibility to type III Hypersensitivity rxns (remember C3b has function in also clearing Immune complexes!)

Severe, recurring pyogenic sinus and respiratory tract infections (strep pneumo, h. influenza)
C5-C9 deficiency
Lacking MAC
Recurrent Neisseria bacteremia and infections
DAF (GPI anchored enzyme) deficiency
complement-mediated lysis of RBCs and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Use Ham's test: RBCs lyse at low pH
T cell surface proteins
TCR
CD3
CD28
CD28
T cell
CD3
T cell
CD2
T cell (CD2 = LFA2 = adhesion molecule on T cells, thymocytes and NK cells)
B cell markers
CD19, CD20, CD21 (EBV), CD40 MHC II, B7
CD19
B cell
CD20
B cell
CD21
EBV binding, B cells
CD40
B cells and macrophages
B7
B cells, and APCs
Macrophage T cell surface proteins
CD14, CD40
MHC II, B7
Fc and C3b receptors
CD14
Macrophages
Fc and C3b receptors
Macrophages
NK cells
CD16 (binds Fc of IgG)
CD56 (unique marker for NK)
CD55/CD59
RBCs, WBCs, platelets , protect against complement mediated damage
CD16
binds Fc of IgG - on NK cells bu not unique marker
CD56
unique marker for NK
T1 Hypersensitivities
Anaphylaxis
Atopy
Allergy
T2 Cytotoxic Hypersensitivities
Hemolytic anemia
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Erythroblastosis fetalis
AIH transfusion rxns
Rheumatic fevere
Goodpasture's
Bullous pemphigoid
Pemphigus vulgaris
T2 NonCytotoxic Hypersensitivities
Graves
Myasthenia gravis
Pernicious anemia
T2DM
T3 Hypersensitivities
SLE
RA
Polyarteritis nodosum
PSGN
Serum sickness
Arthus rxn
Hypersensitiivty pneumonitis (farmer's lung)
T4 Hypersensitivities
T1DM
MS
Guillan-barre
Hashimotos' thyroiditis
GVHD
PPD
contact dermatitis
Blood transfusion-urticaria, pruritus, wheezing, fever.
Allergic, Type I
tx w/ antihistamines
Blood transfusion- dyspnea, bronchospasm, hypotension, respiratory arrest, shock
Anaphylactic Type I -severe, IgA def cant be given blood products w/ IgA
Blood transfusion-Fever, headaches, chills, flushing
Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR) Type II, Host Abs vs donor HLA Ags and leukocytes
Blood transfusion- Fever, hypotension, tachypnea, tachycardia, flank pain, hemoglibinemia (Intravascular), jaundice (extravascular)
Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) Type II, Intravascular hemolysis (ABO blood groop incompatibility) or extravsular hemolysis (Host Ab rx against foreign Ag on donor RBCs)
Blood - hives, itching
Type I allergic
Blood - hypotension, dyspnea, bronchospasm
Type I Anaphylactic (IgA def)
Blood - headaches, chills, flushing, fever
FNHTR nonhemolytic, Type II, Abs -> Host HLA
Blood hypotension, tachypnea, tachy, hemoglobinemia, jaundice
HTR, Type II, ABO incompatibily (intravascular) or Abs to foreign Ags (extravascular)
ANA- antinuclear antibodies
SLE, nonspecific
Anti-dsDNA,
SLE - specific, prognostic -kidney failure
anti-Smith (anti-snRNPs)
SLE - specific, nonprognostic
Antihistone
Drug induced Lupus
IgM Anti-IgG (IgM against Fc of IgG)
Rheumatoid factor, RA
Anticentromere
CREST
Anti-Scl-70 (anti-DNA topoisomerase I)
Scleroderma diffuse
Antimitochondrial
primary biliary cirrhosis (a/w RA, crest, celiac, SLE, lots of others)
Antigliadin
Celiac
Antiendomysial
Celiac
Anti-reticulin
Celiac
Anti-BM
Goodpasturs
Anti-desmoglein
Pemphigus vulgaris
Antimicrosomal
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Antithyroglobulin
TPO Abs
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Anti-Jo-1
Polymositis, Dermatomyositis
Anti-SS-A (Anti-Ro)
Sjogren's , These are ANA (antinuclear antibodies) to specific nuclear protiens
Non specific to sjogrens
Anti-SS-B (Anti-La)
Sjogren's These are ANA (antinuclear antibodies) to specific nuclear protiens
Much more specific to sjogrens
Anti-U1 RNP (ribonucleoprotein)
mixed connective tissue disease
Anti-smooth muscle
Autoimmune hepatitis
Anti-glutamate decarboxylase
T1DM
c-ANCA
Wegener's
Target is usually proteinase3
p-ANCA
Microscopic polyangiitis
Churg-Strauss
Target is usually MPO (myeloperoxidase)
Conditions a/w elevated ESR
Polymyalgia rheumatica
Temporal arteritis
RA
SLE
Pregnancy
Infection inflammation (osteomyelitis)
Malignancy
Conditions w/ decreased ESR
sickle cell (altered shape)
polycythemia (too many)
CHF (unknown)