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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the result of uncontrolled cell growth and/or aborted differntiation
two processes that can cause cell growth
oncogene activation
altered gene expression
what do chromosomes code for
how does oncogene activation occur?
through the process of translocation
chronic myeloid leukemia is an example of what time of cell growth?
oncogene activation
C-22 (growth of myeloid cells)and C-9 (coding cell proliferation with tyrosine kinase) are next to each other and jointly expressed
this is an example of what
oncogene activation
The disease where myeloid cells grow but don't differentiate therefore not fully functional and get infected
Chronic myeloid leukemia
chronic myeloid leukemia can cause...
less expression of genes that normally grow
oncogene activation
apoptosis, overexpressed gene
altered gene expression
protein that codes for breast cancer
normal body cells gone bad
tumor cells express antigens on tumor surface for the purpose of
attracting substrates for growth or signal transduction
how the immune system identifies tumors
tumor cell antigens
tumor antigens that are detected by the humoral system have...
specific epitopes that interact with the antibodies
the cellular immune system recognizes what on tumors
processed peptides and/or sugar molecules
CD4 lymphocytes respond to small peptides bound to
MHC class II
CD8 responds to peptides bound to
MHC class I
What drug for breast cancer inh. estrogen?
Tamoxifen and Raloxifen
What type of drug is used for prostate cancer?
3 ways tumor antigens were initially used
tumor detection
monitoring therapy
identifying relapse
tumor antigen for GI
tumor antigen for ovarian cancer
CA 15-3
tumor antigen for breast cancer
CA 19-9
tumor angtigen for pancreatic cancer
tumor antigen for prostate cancer
What type of cancer can we palpitate
If you find a tumor antigen is that good proof that you have cancer?
Only helpful antigen=
Only tumor antigen used for screening
2 ways to check for prostate cancer
(30-40% accurate)
Digital rectal exam (finger feels only back side of prostate)
PSA (may be false neg. since PSA will also be high with benign)
Two types of breast cancer
ER+ (use Tamoxifen and Roloxifen)
ER- (more serious, drugs won't work, use chemo)
3 approaches for removing cancer
Surgeon's approach (cut)
Kill cancer cells
Radiation (burn)
Probelem with cutting cancer out of body
won't work on all types of cancer (prostate, brain, head and neck)
basis of chemotherapy
tumor cells need more nutrients since they are growing faster
4 processes of chemo
Destroying DNA
anti-metabolite (prevent nucleic acid)
chelating agents (hold splitting cells together)
cell level (don't allow transfer from mother to daughter cell by clogging tubules or preventing them from dissolving)
Drawback of chemo
Other fast growing normal cells also die

GI (N/V, mouth sores)
hair falls out
BM (anemia, low platelet count)
When is radiation used?
If tumor is in an unreachable location
What is radiation?
Burning of tumor by multiple beams of small radiation
Where is radiation used?
Where isn't radiation used?
liver, lungs, pelvis (causes sterilization)
How we diagnose cancer
Two classes of current immunotherapy strategies
Active and Passive
What is active immunotherapy?
stimulates immune reaction that will kill or slow down tumor
What is passive immunotherapy?
equips body to fight tumor by making antibody to antigen from biopsy
- May add chemo or radiation to Ab
another name for passive immunity
adoptive immunity