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25 Cards in this Set

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WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT MODES OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION?
DIRECT CONTACT
AIRBORNE
VEHICLE (FOOD, WATER, INANIMATE OBJECT)
VECTOR - ANIMALS THAT CARRY DISEASE
(MOSQUITOS, TICKS, LICE, FLEAS)
__________ DISCOVERED PENICILLIN IN ____ BY WHAT PROCESS?
ALEXANDER FLEMING
1928
OBSERVED THAT BREAD MOLD INHIBITS BACTERIAL GROWTH
WHERE DO T LYMPHOCYTES MATURE
THYMAS GLAND
WHAT IS THE INFLAMMATORY REACTION TO TISSUE DAMAGE?
MAST CELLS (TYPE OF WHITE BLOOD CELL)
RELEASE HISTAMINE & KININS - CAUSING SKIN TO REDDEN AND BECOME WARM
NEUTOPHILS & MONOCYTES GO TO THE INJURY- COMPLIMENT PROTEINS MARK BACKTERIA FOR DESTRUCTION
LEAVE BLOOD AND TURN INTO MACROPHAGES - EAT PATHOGENS
MOVE THRU LYMPH TO THE LYMPH NODES THAT FIGHT INFECTIONS
WHAT ARE NK CELLS
NATURAL KILLER CELLS WITH NO MEMORY AND NO SPECIFICITY - THEY KILL VIRUS-INFECTED CELLS AND TUMOR CELLS
WHAT IS LYMPH?
A CLEAR FLUID THAT BATHES THE BODY'S TISSUES
ORGANS OF IMMUNE SYSTEM ARE CONNECTED BY A NETWORK OF ____________ AND
CONVEYED THROUGH THE LYMPHATIC IN LYMPH
LYMPHATIC VESSELS
WHAT ARE LYMPH NODES?
EACH BODY CAVITY HAS LYMPH NODES. SMALL SCTRUCTURES ALONG LYPHATIC VESSELS, COMPARTMENTS HAVE B CELLS THAT EAT OATGIGEBS & DEBRIS.

HAVE T CELLS PRESENT IN SINUSES FIGHT INFECTIONS & ATTACK CANCER CELLS
WHAT IS THE THYMAS GLAND?
A PRIMARY LYMPHATIC ORGAN LOCATED IN ANTERIOR TO AORTA AND UPPER THORACIC CAVITY. SHRINKS AS WE GET OLDER.
WHERE T LYMPHOCYTES MATURE- IF THEY HAVE POTENTIAL TO ATTACK FOREIGN CELL-THEY LEAVE THYMUS

CRITICAL TO IMMUNITY
WHAT IS RED BONE MARROW?
PRIMARY LYMPHATIC ORGAN WHERE B CELLS MATURE.
WHERE STEM CELLS DIVIDE & PRODUCE BLOOD CELLS SUCH AS
NEUTROPHILS, EOSINOPHILS, BASOPHILS, MONOCYTES & LYMPHOCYTES
WHAT IS THE SPLEEN?
SECONDARY LYMPHATIC ORGAN - COMPARTMENTS OF TISSUE OF WHITE & RED PULPS. WHITE PULP CONTAINS LYMPHOCYTES.
RED PULP FILTERS BLOOD. BLOOD COMES HERE FROM SINUSES WHERE LYMPHOCYTES & MACROPHAGES EAT PATHOGENS AND REMOVE WORN-OUT CELLS
WHAT IS INFLAMMATORY REACTION?
1. HISTAMINE CHEMICALS CAUSE BLOOD TO COME TO THE SCENE
2. TISSUE CELLS RELEASE CHEMICAL CAUSING NERVE ENDINGS TO ALERT SYSTEM
NEUTORPHILS & MONOCYTES EAT MICROBES
(MONOCYTES STIMULATE IMMUNE RESPONSE)
__________ IMMUNITY DEVELOPS NATURALLY UPON INFECTION OF PATHOGEN AND INCLUDE
VACCINES WHICH IS _______________ AGAINST CERTAIN DISEASES.
ACTIVE

IMMUNIZATION
WHAT IS PASSIVE IMMUNITY?
TEMPOARY IMMUNITY (NO MEMORY CELLS)BY PREPARED ANTIBODIES WHEN PERSON IS THREATENED BY INFECTIOUS DISEASE
WHAT ARE THE NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES?
Phagocytosis: by neutrophils, and macrophages.
Inflammatory response
Signs: redness, warmth, swelling, pain
Process: tissue damage leads to release of histamine,
blood vessels dilate,
complement marks bacteria,
phagocytic cells arrive and remove invading microorganisms
WHAT ARE THE LINES OF DEFENSE?
1.Natural killer cells: lymphocytes
2.Complement system: group of plasma
proteins
3.Interferons: interfere with virus
spread
4. Fever: increase host cell defenses and metabolic activity
WHAT ARE SPECIFIC DEFENSES?
1. T cells require antigen processing
(APC) digests antigens and displays parts of it on the cell surface with help from the MHC protein
2. T cells can now recognize that specific antigens

B cells react directly to antigens
WHAT IS THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE?
Physical and chemical barriers
Skin: characteristics of barrier
Structure: dead layer, inhospitable to microorganisms
Constant replacement: many adhering microorganisms removed
pH = 5-6: too acidic for many microorganisms
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF T CELLS?
PROVIDE CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY AGAINST VIRUS & CANCER CELLS
PRODUCED IN BONE MARROW, MATURE IN THYMUS
MUST HAVE APC
CYTOTOXIC T CELLS DESTROY NONSELF CELLS
HELPER T CELLS SECRETE CYTOKINES THAT CONTROL IMMUNE RESPONSE
WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF APC, MHC & HLA?
1. APC ENGULFS PATHOGEN AND BREAKS
INTO FRAGMENTS.
2. FRAGMENTS LINKED TO MHC - THEN
PRESENTED TO T CELL
3. HELPER T CELL RECOGNIZES ANTIGEN
4. STIMULATES CYTOTOXIC T CELL TO
DESTROY PATHOGEN AND INFECTED
CELLS.
WHAT ARE VECTORS?
ORGANISMS THAT CARRY DISEASE FOUND IN ANIMALS - INSECTS, ARACHNIDS, REPTILES, BIRD, MAMMALS
WHAT ARE ADHESION FACTORS?
ALL PATHOGENS TO BIND TO CELL SURFACES
(SPIKES)
COVERED IN A SHELL STUDDED W/ 2 TYPES OF PROTEINS

COMBINATION OF PROTEINS DETERMINES STRAIN
WHAT DOES CHEMOTHERAPY DO?
DRUGS KILLS TUMOR CELLS AND NORMAL CELLS
DAMAGES DNA OR INTERFERES WITH DNA SYNTHESIS
WHAT DOES RADIATION DO?
KILLS CANCER CELLS & HEALTHY CELLS -
CAUSES CANCER CELLS TO MUTATE AND CAUSES APOPTOSIS (CELL DEATH).
WHAT DOES SURGERY TO DO CANCER CELLS
REMOVES TUMORS