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40 Cards in this Set

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Trichinella spiralis, the female deposits larvae within 5-6 days that are carried in the bloodstream to all tissues of the body.
What happens to the larvae in the host? where does it reside and what damage does it do?
The larvae encyst only within striated muscle; nevertheless, they can cause significant pathology and even death as they migrate through host tissue.
This is Trichinella spiralis, the causative agent of Trichinosis. It is usually acquired from eating inadequately cooked pork, or bear meat, containing encysted infective stage larvae. In the small intestine of the host these larvae excyst and quickly mature to the adult stage within 30 hours. Although the adults remain in the GI tract,
River Blindness (black flies (Simulium))
Human Onchocerciasis, or River Blindness, due to infection with the filarid Onchocerca volvulus
Treatment of river blindness?
Ivermectin
Lifecycle of filariae? (e.g Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca Volvulus, Loa Loa)
Name their vectors?
Bite -> microfilariae larvae migrates to tissue or lymphatics (depending on species) -> mature in tissue or lymphatics-> enter blood

WB - Anopheles mosquito
OV- Black fly
LL- Deer fly
Borrelia burgdorferi, a spirochete that causes Lyme Disease, and Babesia microti, the malaria-like protozoon that causes Babesiosis. are transmitted by what particular tick?
Both are transmitted by Ixodes dammini
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Q Fever, are caused by rickettsiae is transmitted by what vector?
tick-transmitted
Tularemia is caused by the bacteria Francisella tularensis, may be transmitted by what vector?
ticks and other arthropods. tick bite; rabbits, deer
Finally, a number of viruses causing fever and/or encephalitis including Colorado Tick Fever. are transmitted by what vector?
ticks
DHo!
Name 3 bugs with Lice (hair or body louse) its vector- that infect humans
Two types of rickettsiae -
1. Rickettsia prowazeki, which causes epidemic typhus,
2.Rickettsia quintana, which causes trench fever - Body louse
3. Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of relapsing fever, is also louse-borne.
epidemic typhus, trench fever, relapsing fever
Disease endemic to the Ohio and Mississippi River Valley - associated with bird dropping?
The Fungus - Histoplasmosis capsulatum
Histoplasmosis capsulatum survives in what cell line?
A macrophage may contain multiple yeast form of histoplasmosis
How is histoplasmosis transmitted? Can cause what? what group is susceptible? pathohistology?
1.Inhaled dust with bird dropping
2. Pulmonary disease
3. AIDS patients
4. Calcified nodules in lung- micro: granuloma
What is the name of the free swimming stage of schistosoma spp? What is the hosts of the schistosoma spp? Where do they mature in humans?
1.Cercaria
2. Snails and humans
3. Intraheptic portal blood
where does clonorchis sinensis mature in humans? What are the hosts?
1. Bile duct
2. Snails(matures)-> Fish (cercaria ->metacercaria(infective))->human
where does clonorchis sinensis mature in humans? What are the hosts?
1. Bile duct
2. Snails(matures)-> Fish (cercaria ->metacercaria(infective))->human
who has the hooks Taenia Solium, Taenia Saginata and Echinococcus Granulosus?
Taenia Solium and Echinococcus Granulosus
Total amt of people with AIDs?
42million
How many bands do you need in a western blot to test positive for HIV?
2 out of 3
What is the screening test for HIV and what is the confirmatory test for HIV?
1. Elisa - Screening
2. Western Blot - Confirmatory test
What are the cell lines that HIV can potentially infect?
1. Activated CD4 cells
2. Resting CD4 cells
3. Macrophages
What are the common opportunistic infections in AIDS/HIV patient?
PCP
Mycobacterium Avium Complex
Toxoplasmosis
CMV
Kaposi Sarcoma
Lymphoma
What is the goals of Antiretroviral theray in HIV+ patients?
1. Surpress the HIV viral loads
2. Increase immune function
3. delay clinical progression of HIV disease
who should decide on treatment? pt or doc
Patient
Targets for HIV antivirals drugs?
1. Protease inhibitors (end in -ir)
2. RT nucleoside analogs inhibitors
3. RT nucleotide analogs inhibitors
4.Entry inhibitors (Enfuvirtide)
et.c
In sequence list the molecules on a T-helper cell that are important for the entry of HIV?
1. gp41 + gp120(on HIV) attaches to CD4
2. Co-receptor interaction: CxCR4,CCR5 on the Tcell
3. Anchorage with gp41
4. Coil- coil interaction
5. Fusion complete
Action of fluoroquinolones?
1.Chelation of magnesium ions
2. Inhibition of the DNA gyrase
What are the quinolone side effects?
Prolonged QT interval, phototoxocity, Hepatoxocity, CNS
What drugs are part of the Macrolides?
Erythromycin, dirithromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin.

Dont confuse these drugs with the Aminoglycosides(gentamycin,streptomycin etc)
What are the Aminoglycoside toxocity?
Nephrotoxocity, Ototoxocity, Neuromuscular blockade, Allergic rxns
What are the Aminoglycoside toxocity?
Nephrotoxocity, Ototoxocity, Meuromuscular blockade, Allergic rxns
What bugs to you use Vancomycin?
G + bacteria (I.V use)
Clostridium difficle (oral use)
Drug of choice for
MRSA (methcillin resistant staph aureus)
MRSE
Beta-lactam resistant Strep. Pneumoniae
What bugs to you use Vancomycin?
G + bacteria (I.V use)
Clostridium difficle (oral use)
Drug of choice for
MRSA (methcillin resistant staph aureus)
MRSE
Beta-lactam resistant Strep. Pneumoniae
What bugs to you use Vancomycin?
G + bacteria (I.V use)
Clostridium difficle (oral use)
Drug of choice for
MRSA (methcillin resistant staph aureus)
MRSE
Beta-lactam resistant Strep. Pneumoniae
What bugs to you use Vancomycin?
G + bacteria (I.V use)
Clostridium difficle (oral use)
Drug of choice for
MRSA (methcillin resistant staph aureus)
MRSE
Beta-lactam resistant Strep. Pneumoniae
What is most common community acquired Pneumonia?
Streptococcus pneumoniae
What is most common community acquired Pneumonia in COPD and elderly?
H. influenza
What are common community acquired Pneumonia in ETOH abusers and COPD pt ?
Klebsiedlla pneumoniae
(due to aspiration of the anaerobes)
Are Chest x-ray's specific for the cause of a patient's pneumonia?
NO.
more diagnostic modalities are required.
What are the mortality rates in
non hospitalized pts with Community acquired pneumonia? hospitalized CAP? ICU CAP?
1. 1%
2. 15%
3. 35% (ICU)

NYP - 20% of the pneumococcal are penicillin resistant
What are the major causes and their % in Nosocomial pneumonia?
1. E-coli - 50%
2. Stapy aureus - 15-20%
3. Polymicrobial - 50%