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160 Cards in this Set

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learning
a relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience
operant conditioning (aka instrumental conditional)
the form of learning in which people associate the consequences of their actions with the actions themselves; behavior with positive consequences are acquired; behaviors with negative consequences tend to be eliminated
law of effect
the tendency for behaviors leading to desirable consequences to be strengthened and those leading to undesirable consequences to be weakened
positive reinforcement
the process by which people learn to perform behaviors that lead to the presentation of desirable outcomes
negative reinforcement (aka avoidance)
the process by which people learn to perform acts that lead to the removal of undesired events
motivation
the set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behavior toward attaining some goal
need hierarchy theory
Abraham Maslow's theory specifying that there are five human needs (pshysiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization) and the these are arranged in such a way that lower, more basic needs must be satisfaied before higher-level needs become activated
physiological needs
lowest-order, most basic needs specified by Maslow's need hierarchy theory, including fundamental biological drives, such as the need for food, water, air, and shelter
safety needs
according to Maslow's need hierarchy, safety needs include the need for a secure environment and to be free from threats of physical or psychological harm
social needs
in Maslow's need hierarchy, the need to be affiliative--that is, to have friends, and to be loved and accepted by other people
deficiency needs
the group of physiological, safety, and social needs in Maslow's need hierarchy; as the needs are not met, people will fail to develop in a healthy fashion
growth needs
in Maslow's need hierarchy, esteem needs and the need for self-actualization; gratification of these needs helps a person reach his or her full potential
esteem needs
in Maslow's need hierarchy, the need to develop self-respect and to gain the approval of others
self-actualization
in Maslow's need hierarchy, the need to discover who we are and to develop ourselves to the fullest potential
ERG theory
an alternative to Maslow's need hierarchy proposed by Aderefer, which asserts that there are three basic human needs: existence, relatedness, and growth
outplacement services
assistance in finding new jobs that companies provide to employees they lay off
goal setting
the process of determining specific levels of performance for workers to attain
self-efficacy
one's belief about having the capacity to perform a task
goal-setting theory
the theory according to which a goal serves as a motivator because it causes people to compare their present capacity to perform with that required to succeed at the goal
goal committment
the degree to which people accept and stive to attain their goals
organizational justice
people's perceptions of fairness in organizations, consisting of perspectives of how decisions are made regarding the distribution of outcomes(procedural justice) and the percieved fairness of those outcomes themselves (equity theory)
distributive justice
the perceived fairness of the way rewards are distributed among people
equity theory
the theory stating that people strive to maintain ratios of their own outcomes (rewards) to their own inputs (contributions) that are equal to the outcome/input ratios of others with whom they compare themselves
outcomes
the rewards employees receive from their jobs, such as salary and recognition
inputs
people's contributions to their jobs, such as their experience, qualifications, or the amount of time worked
overpayment equity
the condition resulting in feelings of guilt, in which the ratio of one's outcomes/inputs is more than the corresponding ratio of another person with whom that person compares himself
underpayment inequity
the condition resulting in feelings of anger, in which the ratio of one's outcomes/inputs is less than the corresponding ratio of another person with whom that person compares himself
equitable payment
the state in which one person's outcome/input ratio is equivalent to that of another person with whom the person compares himself
procedural justice
perceptions of the fairness of the procedures used to determine outcomes
interactional justice
the perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment used to determine organizational outcomes
two-tiered wage structures
payment systems in which newer employees are paid less than employees hired at earlier times to do the same work
expectancy theory
the theory that asserts that motivation si based on people's beliefs about the probability that effort will lead to performance (expectancy), multiplied by the probability that performance will lead to reward (instrumentality), multiplied by the perceived value of the reward (valence)
expectancy
the belief that one's efforts will positively influence one's performance
instrumentality
an individual's beliefs regarding the likelihood of being rewarded in accord with his or her own level of performance
valence
the value a person places on the rewards he or she expects to receive from an organization
cafeteria-style benefit plans
incentive systems in which employees have an opportunity to select the fringe benefits they want from a menu of available alternatives
pay-for-performance plans
a payment system in which employees are paid differentially based on the quantity and quality of their performance; pay for performance plans enhance instrumentality beliefs
incentive stock option (ISO) plans
corporate programs in which a company grants an employee the opportunity to purchase its stock at some future time at a specified price
job design
an approach to motivation suggesting that jobs can be created to enhance people's interest in doing them
job enlargement
the practice of expanding the content of a job to include more variety and a greater number of tasks at the same level
job enrichment
the practice of giving employees a high degree of control over their work, from planning and organization, through implementing the jobs and evaluating the results
job characteristics model
an approach to job enrichment that specifies that five core job dimensions (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and job feedback) produce critical psychological states that lead to beneficial outcomes for individuals and the organization
growth need strength
the personality variable describing the extent to which people have a high need for personal growth and development on the job
motivating potential score
a mathematical index describing the degree to which a job is designed so ast to motivate people, a suggested by the job characteristics model; it is computed one the basis of a questionnaire known as the job diagnostic survey; the higher the MPS, the more the job may stand to benefit from redesign
organization
a structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed-upon objectives
organizational behavior
the field that seeks increased knowledge of all aspects of behavior in organizational settings through the use of the scientific method
behavioral sciences
fields such as psychology and sociology that seek knowledge of human behavior and society through the use of the scientific method
Theory X
a traditional philosophy of management suggesting that most people are lazy and irresponsible and will work had only when forced to do so
Theory Y
A philosophy of management suggesting that under the right circumstances people are fully capable of working productively and accepting responsibility for their work
open systems
self-sustaining systems that transform input from the external environment into outpout, which the system then returns to the environment
contingency approach
a perspective suggesting that organizational behavior is affected by a large number of interacting factors; how someone will behave is said to be contingent upon many different variables at once
time-and-motion study
a type of applied research designed to classify and streamline the individual movements needed to perform jobs with the intent of finding 'the one best way' to perform them (Taylor)
scientific management
an early approach to management and organizational behavior emphasizing the importance of designing jobs as efficiently as possible (Taylor)
human relations movement
a perspective on organizational behavior that rejects the primary economic organization of scientific management and recognizes, instead, the importance of social processes in work settings (Mayo)
Hawthorne studies
the earliest systematic research in the OB field, this work was performed to determine how the design of work environments affected performance
division of labor
the practice of dividing work into specialize tasks that enable people to specialize in what they do best (Fayol)
bureaucracy
an organizational design that attempts to make organizations operate efficiently by having a clear hierarchy of authority in which people are required to perform well-defined jobs (Weber)
globalization
the process of interconnecting the world's people with respect to the cultural, economic, political, technological and environmental aspects of their lives
multi-national enterprises (MNE's)
organizations that have significant operations spread throughout various nations but are headquartered in a single country
expatriates
people who are citizens of one country but are living and working in another
culture
the set of values, customs, and beliefs that people have in common with other members of a social unit
culture shock
the tendency for people to become confused and disoriented as they attempt to adjust to a new culture
repatriation
the process of readjusting to one's own culture after spending time away from it
convergence hypothesis
a biased approach to the study of management, which assumes that principles of good management are universal, and that ones that work well in the US will apply equally well in other nations
divergence approach
the approach to the study of management that recognizes that knowing how to mange most effectively requires clear understanding of the culture in which people work
child-care facilities
sites at or near company locations where parents can leave their kids while working
elder-care facilities
facilities at which employees at work can leave elderly relative for whom they are responsible (such as parents or grandparents)
baby boom generation
the generation of children born in the economic boom period following World War II
personal support policies
widely varied practices that help employees meet the demands of their family lives, freeing them to concentrate on work
informate
the process by which workers manipulate objects by "inserting data" between themselves and those objects
downsizing (rightsizing)
the process of adjusting downward the number of employees needed to work in newly designed organizations
outsourcing
the process of eliminating those parts of organizations that focus on noncore sectors of the business and hiring outside firms to perform these functions instead
core competency
an organizations key capability, what is does best
virtual corporation
a highly flexible, temporary organizaiton formed by a group of companies that join forces to exploit a specific opportunity
telecommuting (teleworking)
the practice of using communications technology so as to enable work to be performed from remote locations, such as the home
flextime programs
policies that give employees some discrection over when they arrive adn leave work, thereby making it easier to adapt their work schedules to the demands of their personal lives
contingent workforce
people hired by organizations temporarily to work as needed for finite periods of time
compressed workweeks
the practice of working fewer days each week but longer hours each day
job sharing
a form of regular part-time work in whicuh pairs of employees assume the duties of a single job, splitting its responsibilities, salary, benefits in proportion to the time worked
voluntary reduced work time (V time) programs
programs that allow employees to reduce the amount of time they work by a certain amount with a proportional reduction in pay
time quality management (TQM)
an organizational strategy of commitment to improving customer satisfaction by developing techniques to carefully manage output quality
benchmarking
the process of comparing one's own products and services with the best from others
quality control audits
careful examination of how well a company is meeting its standards
Malcom Baldrige Quality Award
an award given annually to American companies that practice effective quality management and make significant improvements in the quality of their goods and services
sweatshops
unsafe and uncomfortable factories where people work long hours for low wages making clothing
corporate social responsibility
business decision making linked to ethical values, compliance with legal requirements, and respect for individuals, the community at large, and the environment; it involves operating a business that meets or exceeds the ethical, legal, and public expectations that society has of business
ethics officers
individuals (usually at the vice presidential level) who oversee the ethics of a company's operations
code of ethics
a document describing what an organization stands for and the general rules of conduct it expects of its employees
ethics audit
the process of actively investigating and documenting incidents of dubious ethical value within a company
social perception
the process of combining, integrating, and interpreting information about others to gain an accurate understanding of them
attribution
the process through which idividuals attempt to determine the cause behind others' behavior
personal identity
the charateristics that define a particular individual
social identity
who a person is, as defined in terms of his or her membership in various social groups
social identity theory
a conceptualization recognizing that the way we perceive others and ourselves is based on both our unique characteristics and our membership in various groups
correspondent inferences
judgements about people's dispositions, traits, and characteristics, that correspond to what we have observed of their actions
internal causes of behavior
explanations based on actions for which the idividual is responsible
external causes of behavior
explanations based on situations over which the individual has no control
Kelley's Theory of causal attribution
the approach suggesting that people will believe other's actions to be caused by internal or external factors based on three types of information: consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness
consensus
information regarding the extent to which other people behave in the same manner as the person being judged (Kelley)
consistency
information regarding the extent to which the person being judged acts the same way at other times
distinctiveness
information regarding the extent to which a person behave in the same manner in other contexts
stereotypes
beliefs that all members of specific groups share similar traits and are prone to behave in the same way
perceptual biases
predispositions that people have to misperceive others in various ways (including fundamental attribution error, halo effect, similar-to-me effect, and first impression error)
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to attribute other's actions to internal causes while largely ingoring external factors that also may have influence
halo effect
the tendency for overall impressions of others to affect objective evaluations of their specific traits; perceiving high correlations between characteristics that may be unrelated
similar-to-me effect
the tendency for people to perceive in a positive light others who are believed to be similar to themselves in any of several different ways
selective perception
the tendency to focus on some aspects of the environment while ignoring others
first-impression error
the tendency to base our judgement of others on our earliest impressions of them
self-fulfilling prophecy
the tendency for someone's expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations
Pygmalion effect
a positive instance of the self-fulfilling prophecy in which people holding high expectations of another tend to improve that individuals performance
Golem effect
a negative instance of the self-fulfilling prophecy in which people holding low expectations of another tend to lower that individual's performance
perception
the process through which people select, organize, and interpret information
perfomance appraisal
the process of evaluating employees on various work-related dimensions
impression management
efforts by individuals to improve how the appear to others
corporate image
the impression that people have of an organization
personality
the unique and relatively stable patterns of behavior, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals
interactionist perspective
the view that behavior is a result of complex interplay between personality and situational factors
person-job fit
the extent to which individuals possess the traits and competencies required to perform specific jobs
objective tests
questionnaires and inventories designed to measure various aspects of personality
reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent scores on various occasions
validity
the extent to which a test actually measures what it claims to measure
big five dimensions of personality
five basic dimensions of personality that are assumed to underlie many specific traits: conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, and openness to experience
postive affectivity
the tendency to experience positive moods and feelings in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions
negative affectivity
the tendency to experience negative moods in a wide range of settings and under many different conditions
general self-efficacy
people's overall beliefs about their general capacity to perform tasks successfully
self-monitoring
a personality trait involving the extent to which individual adapt their behavior to the demands of specific situations so as to make good impressions on others
Machiavellianism
a personality trait involving willingness to manipulate others for one's own purposes
Type A behavior pattern
a pattern of behavior involving high levels of competitiveness, time urgency, and irritability
Type B behavior pattern
a pattern of behavior characterized by a casual, laid-back style; the opposite of the Type A behavior pattern
acheivement motivation
the strength of an individual's desire to excel--to suceed at difficult tasks and to do better than other persons
morning persons
individuals who feel most energetic and alert early in the day
evening persons
individuals who feel most energetic and alert late in the day
abilities
mental and physical capapcities to perform various tasks
cognitive intelligence
the ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to engage in various forms of reasoning, and to overcome obstacles by careful thought
information processing
cognitive effort involving the combination, integration, and use of complex information
practical intelligence
adeptness at solving the practical problems of everyday life
tacit knowledge
knowledge about how to get things done
emotional intelligence (EQ)
a cluster of skills relating to the emotional side of life
successful intelligence
intelligence that represents a good balance between cognitive intelligence (IQ), practical intelligence, and creative intelligence
physical abilities
people's capacities to engage in teh physical task required to perform a job (strength, flexibility, stamina, and speed)
evaluative component
liking or disliking of any particular person, item, or event
cognitive component
the things we believe about an attitude object, whether they are true or false
behavioral component
predisposition to behave in a way consistent with our beliefs adn feelings about an attitude object
attitudes
relatively stable clusters of feelings, beliefs, and behavioral intentions toward specific objects, people, or institutions
work-related attitudes
attitudes related to any aspect of work or work settings
job satisfaction
positive or negative attitudes held by individuals toward their jobs
dispositional model of job satisfactions
the conceptualization proposing that job satisfaction is a relatively stable disposition of an individual--that is, a characteristic that stays with people across situations
Job Description Index (JDI)
a rating scael for assessing job satisfaction; individuals respond to this questionnaire by indicating whether or not various adjectives describe aspects of their work
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)
a rating scale for assessing job satisfaction in which people indicate the extent to which they are satisfied with various aspects of their job
Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ)
a questionnaire designed to assess employees' levels of satisfaction with various aspects of their pay
critical incidents technique
a procedure for measuring job satisfaction in which employees describe incidents relating to their work that they find especially satisfying or dissatisfying
two-factor theory
a theory of job satisfaction suggesting that satisfaction and dissatisfaction stem from different groups of variables (motivators and hygiene factors
value theory (of job satisfaction)
a theory suggesting that job satisfaction depends primarily on the match between the outcomes individuals vaule in their jobs and their perceptioins about the availability of such outcomes
employee withdrawal
actions such as chronic absenteeism and voluntary turnover that enable employees to escape from adverse organization situations
unfolding model of voluntary turnover
a conceptualization that explains the cognitive processes through which people make decisions about quitting or staying on their jobs
organizational commitment
the extent to which an individual indentifies and is invovled with his or her organization and/or is unwilling to leave it
continuance commitment
the strength of a person's desire to continue working for an oganization bc he or she needs to do so and cannot afford to leave
affective commitment
the strength of a person's desire to work for an organization bc he or she agrees with its underlying goals and values
normative commitment
the strength of a person's desire to continue working for an organization bc he or she feels obligations from others to remain there
profit-sharing plans
incentive plans in which employees receive bonuses in proportion to the company's profitability