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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the definition of Scientific Method?
Making observations in a systematic way, following strict rules of evidence, and thinking critically.
Define hypothesis and Theories, then explain the differences between the two.
1. Hypothesis - A prediction made based on a theory.

2. Theory - Tentative explanations of facts and relationships in science.

The differences are, A theory is an explanation yet to be proven. A Hypothesis is a prediction of the outcome of testing based on a theory.
Explain and define a "Sample".
A Sample is a small group of participants that are studied in hopes of learning something that will apply to other humans or animals.
What is a representative sample and why is it important?
A representative sample means a sample must by typical to the rest of the population being studied. If the sample is not representative of the population being studied the study will NOT be valid.
What does Replication in research mean and why is it important.
Replication means to repeat a study to show it's accuracy and validity. The more a research project has been replicated the more trustworthy the results are considered.
What is the simplest of scientific inquiry and what is it's definition?
Descriptive Studies - Studying people as they live their lives and using observations to document their behaviors.
Define and describe the Survey Method of inquiry.
Survey Method - An approach that simply asks people questions about material or opinions. Advantage = you can get a lot of information quickly. Disadvantage = The accuracy of the information is in question, are people honest.
Define the Naturalistic Method.
Naturalistic Method - the careful observation and recording of information as it happens in a natural setting.
Define and Clinical Method of inquiry.
Clinical Method - The observation of people while they are in a clinical setting working with a mental health professional.
Define Correlational Method.
Correlational Method - Researchers measure two variables related in the study and see if they are statically related.
Define Variable.
Variable - a variable is anything in which its numerical value can be measured.
What are Quantitative measures?
Quantitative Measures - Are Numerical values can be assigned to each variable in the study.
What does the coefficient of correlation express?
It measures the strength of the correlation between two quantitative variables in statistical terms.
What is the range of the coefficient of correlation?
It can range from -1.00 and Zero to +1.00
What does it mean to be positively or negatively correlated?
A coefficient of +1.00 means it is positively correlated and the score on one variable should be the same on the other variable. -1.00 means it is negatively correlated and the scores on the two variables should not be the same or closely related.
Does correlational studies allow one to make a casual conclusion?
A correlation means two variables are related, but one cannot deduce that there is causation effect between the two variables.
What does a coefficient correlation of Zero denote or mean.
There is NO relationship between the two variables.
What is the most useful method of observation in reaching goals of understanding and influencing behavior...define this method.
Formal Experiments - This is designed to tell us about the relationships between 2 variables. It is carefully conducted experiments with controlled variables and can be used to determine cause-and-effect of behavior.
Define independent and dependent variables.
Independent Variables - arranged to allow for comparison of the participants under 2 or more conditions.

Dependent Variables - The measure of behavior that is contrasted in two or more conditions.
which type of variable can be controlled or manipulated by the researcher?
The Independent Variable
Define Experimental and Control groups in an experiment.
Experimental Group - The group that receives the conditions of the Independent Variable.

Control Group - The group that does not receive any of the independent variable conditions.
Define random assignment and why it is important.
Random Assignment - Participants must be assigned to groups randomly only, if other methods are used the experiment will be invalid.
What is Experimental Control?
Experimental Control - The researcher must insure that the independent variable is the only factor that has controlled the outcome, and that no other factors have influenced the outcome.
What is a Placebo?
Placebo - An inert or inactive condition without an experiment.
What is a Placebo Effect?
Placebo Effect - Changes in a behavior produced by a condition thought to be an inert or inactive, such as a Placebo Pill in medical experiments.
What is meant by a Blind Experiment?
Blind Experiment - Condition in which the researchers recording the data are not aware of which is the experimental and which is the controlled group.
What is Experimenter Bias?
Experimenter Bias - Condition in which the researchers are influenced in their evaluation of the data based on their beliefs of what the outcome should be.
What is Double Blind referring to?
Double Blind - A condition in which the neither the researchers nor the participants know who is in the controlled and who is in the experimental groups.
List and define at least 5 ethical principals in working with human participants.
1. Freedom from Coercion - should not coerce or pressure a person to participate.

2. Informed Consent - Participants must be informed thoroughly what they are getting involved with.

3. Limited Deception - Some experiments may need for the participants to be unaware of what it is for exactly, a) participants should be told everything they can be told to make a decision to participate, and b) they must be told immediately afterwards what the experiment was for.

4. Adequate Debriefing - Participants deserve to know the results afterwards.

5. Confidentiality - Researchers are obliged to keep information learned about participants private.
Define the 3 ethical principles in working with animal participants.
1. Necessity - Experiments with animals should be conducted only if the information to be gained is necessary to learn about human and animal behavior.

2. Health - All animal subjects should be cared for in a manner to insure good health.

3. Humane Treatment - Every effort must be made to insure the comfort of the animals in the experiment.