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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
(True or False)
Crying, Smiling, and laughing are reflexes, not emotions.
False
(True or False)
Complex emotions seem to develop from earlier, simpler ones.
True
(True or False)
The range of basic emotions seem to be universal, but there are cultural variations in their expressions.
True
(True or False)
Children all fall into one category of temperament.
False
(True or False)
Temperamental patterns appear largely to be inborn and are generally stable, but can be modified by experience.
True
(True or False)
There are very few differences in child raising world wide.
False
(True or False)
In most cultures, mothers, even when employed outside of the home, provide more infant care than fathers.
True
(True or False)
Mothers in Fathers in some cultures have different styles of play with babies.
True
(True or False)
Significant gender differences appear before infancy.
False
(True or False)
Parents start gender typing boys and girls almost from birth.
True
(True or False)
Erickson's first crisis of personality is autonomy versus shame and doubt.
False
(True or False)
Attachment to fathers occurs much later than attachment to mothers.
False
(True or False)
Separation and stranger anxiety do not appear until the age of 3.
False
(True or False)
Researchers gauge mutual regulation by the still face paradigm.
True
(True or False)
Separation and stranger anxiety are no longer considered to be components of attachment.
True
(True or False)
The Adult Attachment Interview can predict the security of attachment on the basis of a parent's memories of her or his own childhood attachment.
True
(True or False)
The belief that babies, after about the age of 6 months, show social referencing has been established.
False
(True or False)
The self concept begins to emerge at the age of 3 years.
False
(True or False)
The self concept includes both cognition and emotion.
True
(True or False)
Negativism is a normal manifestation of the shift from external control to self control.
True
(True or False)
Mother's work force participation during a child's first 3 years seems to have little or no impact on the child's development.
True
(True or False)
High quality day care may offset insensitive mothering.
True
(True or False)
Children with generally happy temperament, regular biological rhythms, and a readiness to accept new experiences are known as "easy children".
True
(True or False)
Self conscious and evaluative emotions arise before the development of self awareness.
False
Infants are intensely preoccupied with their principal care giver, may become afraid of strangers, and act subdued in new situations at the age of ____?
9 to 12 months
Infants begin to play social games and try to get responses from people at the age of ___?
6 to 9 months
The first and most powerful way that infants communicate their needs is through ___?
Crying
What kind of cry is characterized by two or three drawn-out cries, with no prolonged breath-holding?
Frustration Cry
What kind of cry is characterized by a sudden onset with no preliminary moaning, sometimes followed by holding the breath.
Pain Cry
Babies indicate their emotions through what things?
Facial Expressions, motor activity, and body language
When do emotions such as embarrassment, empathy, and envy arise?
After the development of self awareness
The fourth cognitive shift in brain organization comes at what age?
Age of 3
Which year does self awareness and self conscious emotions develop?
Second Year
The New York Longitudinal Study is considered______.
The Pioneering study on temperament
What is a child called that has mildly intense reactions, both positive and negative, responds slowly to novelty and change, and gradually develops liking for new stimuli after repeated, unpressed exposures.
Slow-to-Warm-Child
Research evidence points to the idea that temperament is _____.
Stable, inborn, and largely hereditary
In china, children who exhibit shyness and inhibitions are _____.
Socially Approved
In Canada, children who exhibit shyness and inhibition are _____.
Considered immature
Harlow's research with monkeys showed what?
Mothering includes close body contact, and feeding is not the most important thing babies get from mothers
Trust versus mistrust continues through what ages?
until about 18 months of age
Measurable differences between baby boys and baby girls are ______.
Few
Overall fathers are what?
less talkative, negative, and supportive in their speech than mothers
According to Erickson, the critical element in developing trust is what?
Sensitive, responsive, consistent, and care giving
A baby who cries when the mother leaves and greets her happily when she returns is displaying what?
Secure Attachment
A baby who does not cry when the mother leaves and avoids her when she returns is displaying what?
Avoidance Attachment
What do researchers do to measure attachment?
See what happens when the mother returns from being away
Securely attached toddlers are what?
More sociable with their peers and more sociable with unfamiliar adults
The "Still Face" paradigm is a research method used to study ____.
Mutual Regulation
Both as infants and pre-schoolers, children with severely or chronically depressed mothers tend to be ___.
Insecurely Attached