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50 Cards in this Set

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What is Anderson and Pichert's experiment
Aimed to investigate whether schema processing influences encoding and retrieval of memory.
This experiment uses the story of a house which has a burglar schema and a house buyer schema.
According to Folkman and Lazarus, what are the strategies used in stressful situations
-Problem Focused Coping: Tries to solve the problem
-Emotion Focused Coping: Tries to handle the emotions
Who made the multi-store model of memory?
Atkinson and Shiffrin
What is Speisman et al.'s experiment
Aimed to investigate how emotional reaction can be manipulated. The participants are to be shown a movie about genital surgery, by changing their appraisal, their emotional response varies.
Who made the working memory model?
Baddeley and Hitch
What is Neisser and Harsch's investigation on flashbulb memory?
They investigated people who had been during the accident of the Challenger space shuttle. He interviewed them 24 hours after the accident then compared it to the answers after 2 years. They found distortions in the memory, but they are confident.
What is Kasamatsu and Hirai's experiment
Study of how sensory deprivation affects the brain. They studied Buddhist monks who meditates for 72 hours without food and drink. The serotonin levels in the monks elevates. Serotonin activates the hypothalamus and frontal cortex, producing hallucination.
What is Martinez and Kesner's experiment
Study of how acetylcholine affects memory. One group of rats were injected with scopolamine (blocks acetylcholine), another with physostigmine (blocks cleanup of acetylcholine), another with nothing. First group is having memory difficulties, while the second group is the fastest. It is questionable how this research can be generalized into humans
What case study did Dr. John Harlow does?
The case study of Phineas Gage, where his brain got pierced by a flying steel tube. Harlow removes a part of his brain, in which his intellectual ability and emotional control is destroyed
Explain Bouchard and McGue's Experiment.
1981. They reviewed multiple studies of IQ correlations between siblings from researchers around the world.They found that the closer the kinship, the higher the correlation for the IQ.
Explain the Minnesota Twin Studies.
Bouchard et al. 1990. Studies MZA and MZT with participants all over the world. Bouchard et al. estimates that the heritability of IQ is 70% genetic.
What is Baddeley and Hitch's experiment?
They asked the participants to read a prose and to mathematical problem at the same time. They can do the task together, but impaired. This shows that STM is not single-store.
What was Hetherington and Ranson's experiment?
They lesioned a part called as the ventromedial hypothalamus on rats, which regulates hunger. The rats then become obese
What did Scarr and Weinberg (1977) and Horn et al (1979) do?
They tested IQ for natural and adopted children and found a little difference. The result is backed up with the adoptive parent's high class status.
Explain Hainer et al.'s experiment
1988. Is a PET scan study. They observed individuals with high and low IQ. The participants are subjected to reasoning problems. Heiner et al. found that individuals with higher IQ had lower metabolic rates. This is known as the less effort hypothesis.
What did Plomin and Petrill found?
They found that the correlation between parent and child's IQ increases overtime.
Explain the Flynn effect.
James R. Flynn. He found that IQ scores increases by three every ten year. The cause of gain is unknown, but is postulated by the increase of nutrient. Experts argue whether they actually have an increase in intelligence or an increasing ability to crack intelligence tests.
What did Milner and Scoville do?
Case Study of HM. HM is a person who suffered from head injury at the age of 9. As a result, he had epileptic seizures. Doctors remove the part responsible for it. But as a result, HM is unable to form new memories, but still retains older memories.
What is Cole and Scribner's research about?
Aimed to investigate memory strategies in different cultures. He asked US and Liberian children to recall common items. Liberians must be told a meaningful story before they are able to remember it. US children uses chunking, while Liberians uses narrative strategy.
What was Prof. Tetsuro Matsuzawa's experiment?
He made a screen where numbers 1 to 9 will flash one by one. The participants are later asked to resequence the numbers by touching the screen again. He found out that the chimps are better than the humans, regardless of how fast the number flashes. He then concluded that this is caused by the need of chimps to remember their food source as well as dangers. Humans had lost much of this trait because we developed language.
What is Rosenzweig and Bennett's experiment?
They placed a group of rat in a toy rich environment, while the other group of rats were placed in a toy deprived environment. The first group of rats have a higher brain mass
Explain Fessler's experiment!
In 2006, he took pregnant women and subject them to disgusting scenarios. He found out that women during the first trimester had the highest level of disgust than the other two trimesters. He then concluded that this is caused by side effect of suppressing the immune system
What is Frederic Bartlett's experiment?
Serial reproduction on a classic Native American legend. He found that as the story got passed on, it became shorter and more conventional. However, how distorted the story is it is still coherent.
What is Richard Davidson's experiment?
He compared trained monks and beginners in meditation. He found that by meditating, it induces the production of gamma waves. The beginners stopped producing the waves when they stop meditating, while the monks did not
What did Curtis et al. do?
He did an internet survey to test whether there are patterns in people's disgust responses. The participants were subjected to images where they will rate how disgusting the image is. Among the images are infectious or potentially harmful to the immune system. He found out that those images are rated as more disgusting than the other images (bodily fluids for example). He also found out that females score higher than men. Also note that his experiment shows that disgust decreases as age increases.
What is Loftus and Palmer's experiment?
They investigated what will happen if leading questions are changed. The participants were shown a clip of a car crash. Verb such as smashed will yield a higher speed estimate, while verb such as contacted will yield a lower speed estimate.
What was Gallese et al.'s experiment?
They isolated a neural response when a monkey reaches for a peanut. The same response was seem when the monkeys observe the researcher reaches for a peanut
What is Seasonal Affective Disorder?
Rosenthal proposed this. SAD is when there's too much melatonin, inducing sleepiness. SAD disrupts the circadian cycle and induces depression. Light therapy has been used as treatment.
What is Leon Festinger et al's research?
Covert observation on a religiious cult that believed the world would end. During the fateful day, they debated and they made up reasons to maintain their self-esteem.
What is Ross et al.'s research?
Research on Fundamental Attribution Error, they found out that in a game show where they are just playing as roles, the audience thinks that the game show host is the most intellectual.
What is Lau and Russel's research?
SSB on football players
What is Kashima and Triandis' research?
Modesty bias on Japanese citizens, it seems that modesty bias is due to cultural factors.
What is Cialdini et al's research on social identity theory?
Football supporters tend to use the insignia of a winning team instead of the losing team
Who made the social representation concept?
Moscovici
What is Caroline Howarth's research?
She compares the social representations of girls from Brixton. The social representations of Brixton was negative outside, but positive on the inside
What is Steele and Aronson's research?
Stereotyping can affect the performance of individuals. In their experiment, when the question was changed to a purpose of experimentation instead of testing genuine verbal ability, the African American participants were able to score as well as the Europeans.
What is Campbell's argument towards the formation of stereotypes?
He argued that there are two factors: personal experience and gatekeepers. Gatekeepers are in the form of media, parents, friends, etc.
What is Hamilton and Gifford's argument towards the formation of stereotypes?
They argued that stereotypes are formed because of an illusory correlation, meaning that people see a relationship between two variables that never exists. Once they believed in that, confirmation bias kicks in.
Who made the social learning theory?
Albert Bandura
What is Bandura et al's research?
The Bobo doll experiment to see whether children will copy what adult role models do, that is by smashing and verbally abusing the Bobo doll. Children exposed to the violence tends to copy it.
What is Huesmann and Eron's research?.
In a 15 year longitudinal study, they found that children who had watched violence since childhood will exhibit violence behavior more than others.
What is Lynn and McCall's research?
They found out that by giving mints on a bill, the costumers were more likely to leave a bigger tip. An example of reciprocity.
What is Cialdini et al's research on reciprocity?
They found out that by using the DitF technique, students are more likely to accept the offer. The original offer was to be a chaperone on delinquents, the huge request was to be a counselor for two years.
What is Dickerson et al's research?
They wanted to see how students are able to conserve water usage by asking them to sign a campaign poster. It seems that those who signed reduced their water usage even though nobody is watching.
What is Cialdini et al.'s research on low-balling?
They asked psychology students to take part in a study at 7 AM, only a bit showed up. But when Cialdini asked them to join first, then telling the time, most of them showed up.
What is Aronson and Mills' research?
They gathered female college students to join a sex discussion. The first group needs to endure embarrassing initiation before joining. The other did not. There were confederates who made the discussion boring, the group who had joined the initiation felt that the meeting was meaningful.
What is Asch's research?
He placed a participant in the midst of confederates and they need to guess the length of a line in a line test. The confederates were told to give a wrong answer. Most of the time, the participant conforms with the confederates.
What is Smith and Bond's research?
They found that conformity was higher on collectivist countries compared to individualist countries..
What is Berry's research?
Using Asch's conformity experiment, they found that people of Tenme of Sierra Leone conformed more than the Inuit people of canada. The argument was that the Temne have to survive with a single crop that is through agreement and cooperation. The Inuit people is based on hunting and gathering on an individual basis.
What is Hall's theory?
Proximic theory, which states that different cultures have different personal space need. Americans tend to have a shorter personal space need than Europeans.