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141 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The openings directly into the nasal cavity do not include
a. Eustachian tubes
b. external nares
c. internal nares
d. nasolacrimal ducts
a. Eustachian tubes
The III neruon in as sensory pathway from the cord is found in the
a. thalamus
b. dorsal horn
c. lateral horn
d. anterior horn
a. thalamus
Hyaline cartilage is not found in the
a. terminal bronchiole
b. trachea
c. larynx
d. primary bronchi
a. therminal bronchiole
In emphysema the elastic fibers of the alveoli lose their elasticity, therefore
a. the chest size decreases
b. the alveoli remain "contracted"
c. the chest size remains large after inspiration
d. smoking is good for elastic fibers
c. the chest size remains large after inspiration
If the purpose of a tracheotomy is to allow air into the lun as quickly as possible, the incision should be made
a. in the larynx
b. in the bronchi
c. in the alveoli
d. between the C shaped cartilage rings in the trachea
d
The corticobulbar tract descends to the
a. anterior horn cell at C3 level
b. lateral horn at L2 level
c. cranial nerve VII
d. cranial nerve II
C. cranial nerve VII
The oculomotor nerve
a. innervates the superior oblique extraocular eye muscle
b. is purely sensory
c. originates from the dienscephalon
d. innervates the medial rectus extraocular eye muscle
d.
The left primary bronchus
a. supplies three lobes of the lung
b. arises from the larynx
c. is lined with simple squamous epithelium
d. is narrower and longer than the right primary bronchus
d
Clusters of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS are called
a. nuclei
b. fasciuli
c. Nissl
d. Ganglia
Ganglia
A derivative of the diencephalon includes:
a. cerebral cortex
b. hypothalamus
c. VIII nerve
d. XII nerve
Hypothalamus
The amount of cerebrospinal fluid formed in one day is about
700 cc
The left lateral spinothalamic tract is damaged at T2 level. Where is the lak of pain and temperature senations found?
a. below right T3-4 level
b. above right T3-4 level
c. below left T2 level
d. above left T2 level
a. below right T3-4 level
If the anterior neuropore in the neural tube fails to close at about one month
a. the brain can still form normally
b. condition called spina bifida develops
c. condition called anencephaly develops
d. extra ventricles develop
c. anencephaly
Multipolar nerve cells
a. are not found in the anterior horn cell
b. are only found in the dorsal root ganglia
c. are the most numerous nerve cell in the CNS
d. can have servreal axons in vertebrates
c. are the most numerous
Types of synapses do not include
a. axosomatic
b. axoaxonic
c. dendrodendritic
d. axoganglionic
d. axoganglionic
The facial nerve
a. innervates the muscles of mastication
b. innervates the lateral rectus eye muscle
c. innervates the frontalis muscle
d. does not innervate the tast buds in the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
c.
Cerebrospinal fluid in the III ventricle flows into the
a. lateral verntricle
b. aqueduct
c. subarachonoid space
d. fourth vertnricle
b. aqueduct
Ciliar are not found in the
a. nasal cavity
b. larynx
c. nasal pharynx
d. alveoli
d. alveoli
A derivative of the myelecephalon includes
a. pons
b. cerebellum
c. corupus callosum
d. medulla oblongata
d. medulla oblongata
Glial cells
a. do not divide
b. are only found in PNS
c. are the structural and metabolic support cell for the neruon
d. have no nucleus
C
Cancer of the lung
a. occurs most frequently in the most vascular part of the lung
b. begins in the alveoli
c. starts most frequently in the walls of the bronchi
d. is due to lack of surfactant
c.
Visceral efferent fibers supply the
a. heart muslce
b. lateral rectus eye muscle
c. external oblique eye muscle
d. medial rectus eye muscle
a. heart muscle
Dendrites do not
a. synapse with dendrites
b. convey impulses away from the soma
c. possess spines
d. have a post synaptic terminal
convey impulses away from the soma
Lack of pain in a tooth could be due to blockage of a branch of what nerve?
a. VII
B. V
C. IX
D. XI
V
The axon hillock is
a. always at the beginning of the presynaptic terminal
b. filled with rough ER
c. the site of attachment of the axon to the soma
d. is a source of collaterals
C
Myelin in the PNS is formed by
Swchwann cells
Pleural fluid is secreted by the pleura which
a. cover the primary bronchi
b. only cover the lungs
c. line the thoracic cavity (parietal) and cover the lungs (visceral)
d. are made of simple cuboidal epithelial cells
C
The telencephalon gives rise to the
a. cerebral penducles
b. basal ganglia
c. superior colliculus
d. thalamus
Basal ganglia
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease and the myelin sheath slowly dissapears. Myelin in the CNS is formed by?
Oligodendrocytes
Oligodendroglia
a. pick up excess K+
B. form myelin in the CNS
c. pick up excess CA++
d. form myelin in the PNS
B.
Lissauer's fasciculus is part of the
a. midbrain
b. thalamus
c. pain pathway in the spinal cord
d. fasciculus gracilis
Pain
The optic nerve
a. orginates from the ganglion cells of the retina
b. migrates laterally from the mesencephalon
c. originates directly from the rods and cones in the retina
d. does not synapse in the thalamus
a. originates from the ganglion cells of the retina
Pseudostratfied columnar ciliated epithelium is not found in or on the
a. vocal chords
b. maxillary sinus
c. nasal cavity
d. trachea
a. vocal chords
The trochlear nerve
a. slows the heart
b. innervates the partoid salviary gland
c. innervates the orbicularis oculi muscle
d. innervates the superior oblique eye muscle
D
Turbinates or choncha are not designed to
a. increase the SA of the nasal cavity
b. provide attachment for nasal muscles
c. enhance the distribution of the venus plexus
d. allow for more ciliar to clean the air
B
Which statement is incorrect about the true vocal chords?
a. are controlled bu the throarytenoid muscles
b. border the glottis
c. constrict during asthma
d. are longer on the average in males than in females
C. constrict during asthma
Conscious proprioception or kinesthetic sense is taken to the thalamus via fibers in the
a. lateral funiculus
b. posterior funiculus
c. anterior funiculus
d. lateral cortical spinal tract
posterior funiculus
The funciton of calmodulin is to
a. promote the uptake of K+
B. stiumlate protein synthesis
c. block post synaptic receptors
d. interat with CA++ to help guid the synaptic visicles to the presynaptic membrance
D
Neuroglia are not found in the
a. white matter
b. grey matter
c. anterior horn
d. arachonid
D. arachonoid
A pseudounipolar cell
a. is not found in the dorsal root ganglia
b. has both an axon and dendrites
c. has myelin on both the peripheral and central process
d. none of the above
C
The olfactory nerve cell is
a. multipolar
b. not found in the roof of the nasal cavity
c. found on the concha
d. bipolar and sends it axon through the cribriform plate to the olfactory bulb
D
Myelin
a. slows impluse conduction
b. is grey
c. surrounds all dendrites
d. is a phospholipid
D
The cellular organelle that continually renews the protein in the membranes and cytoplasm of the neuron is called
a. golgi
b. neurofilbrisl
c. Nissl substance - RER
d. chromatin
C
The lateral spinal thalamic tract terminates in the
a. thalamus
b. basal ganliga
c. postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex
d. meduula
Thalamus
The _ is not part of the nasal septum
a. perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
b. hyaline cartilage
c. nasal bone
d. vomer
Nasal bone
Peripheral nerves do not have
a. somatic afferent fibers
b. somatic efferent fibers
c. pyramidal cells
d. Schwann cells
pyramidal cells
The adenoids (pharyngeal tonsils)
a. are not lymphatic tissue
b. produce lymphocytes
c. produce polymorphs
d. are found in the laryngeal pharynx
Produce lymphocytes
WHich is not a funciton of the prefrontal cortexa.
a initiative
b judgment
c astereognosis
d. planning ahead
Astereognosis
Most nerve cells in the CNS are
a. motor neurons
b. sensory neurons
c. interneurons
d. pseduoneruons
Interneurons
Chromatolysis occurs in the soma of an injred nerve cell. What change takes place?
a. the soma becomes shrunken
b. the Nissl migrates to the periphery of the swollen soma
c. the mitochondria increase
d. the Nissl miragtes into the axon
B
What component is missing in the wall of the terminal bronchiole?
Hyaline cartilage
Which is not correct for the hypothalamus?
a. lies between the thalamus and the basal ganglia
b. regulates body temperature
c. regulates hunger
d. regulates sleep and wakfulness
A
Which is not a neruon in the ascending pathway from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex?
a. thalamic neuron
b. posterior horn neuron
c. dosal root ganglion neruon
d. anterior horn neruon
D
Which function is not associated with astocytes?
a. initiate the formation of the blood brain barrier
b. pick up K+ after neuronal firing
c. store glycogen for an energy source for neurons
d. form myelin
Forms myelin
The _ cranial nerve allows chewing of food
Trigeminal
The corpora quadrigemina, substantia nigra, and the cerebral peduncles are structures of the
a. mesencephalon
b. diencephalon
c. metencephalon
d. myelencephalon
mesencephalon
Injuries to the prefrontal cortex probably would cause problems such as
a. weight loss
b. dehydration
c. hearing
d. judment, initiative, sequencing, planning ahead
D
The fourth ventricle is bounded by the
Medulla and cerebellum
In the adult the conus medullaris is found at what level of the vertebral column?
L1-L2
The pain and temperature receptors are
a. Pacinian corpuscles
b. Golgi tendon organs
c. free nerve endings
d. CT encapsulated endings
free nerve endings
The most common type of neuron in the CNS is the
a. sensory neruon
b. motor neuron
c. bipolar neuron
d. interneuron
Interneuron
Which is not part of the root of the lung
a. pulmonary artery
b. primary bronchi
c. terminole bronchiole
d. nerves
C. terminole bronchiole
Which symptom is associated with poliomyelitis?
a. flaccid paralysis
b. positive Babinski
c. atrophy of muslce
d. increased deep reflexes
atrophy of muscle
A collection of nerve cell boides outside the CNS is called a
a. tract
b. nerve
c. nucleus
d. ganglion
Ganglin
WHich of the following types of neruons are pseudounipolar?
a. sensory neurons
b. somatic motor neuronsj
c. neurons of the retina
d. autonomic motor neruons
sensory neruons
Which is not one of the three kinds of functional areas in the cerebral cortex?
a. motor areas, control voluntary motor functions
b. sensory areas, provide for conscious awareness of sensation
c. association areas, integrate diverse information for puposeful action
d. monosynaptic spinal cord reflexes
D
The blood brain barrier is formed by a
a. presynatpic terminal
b. postsynaptic terminal
c. oligodendrocytic feet
d. tight junction between endothelial cells
D
The pial glial membrane serves to preotect the CNS and cosists of
a. microglia
b. oligodendroctyes
c. ependymal cells
d. astrocytes
astrocytes
For calmodulin to function it needs which ion to be present in the presynatpic terminal?
CA++
The precentral gyrus
a. has only five cortical layers
b. is primarily sensory in function
c. contributes to the corticospinal tract
d. goes directly to the occipital cortex
contributes to the corticospinal tract
In the synaptic cleft, dopamine
a. combines with cocaine
b. hops on a carrier to be recycled
c. hydrolyzes in order to be deactivated
d. combines with acetylcholine to be effective
hops on a carrier to be recycled
Which cranial nerve nucleus would receive input from the cortioculbar tract?
a. optic
b. auditory
c. oculomotor
d. olfactory
C
The basal ganglia cooperate with the cerebral cortext to control
a. pain
b. movement
c. vision
d. olfaction
b. movement
Neruomodulators are maed in the
a. soma by Golgi apparatus
b. Nissl in the axon
c. neruotubules in the axon
d. mitochoria in the presynaptic terminal
soma by Golgi apparatus
The principal connection between the cerebral hemispheres is called the
a. pons
b. intermediate mass
c. corpus callosum
d. precentral gyrus
C
The aoxns from the ganglion cells in the retina synpase in the _ before going to the visual cortex
a. hypothalamus
b. basal ganlia
c. amygdala
d. lateral geniculate nucleurs of the thalamus
d. lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
Dednritic spins are outgrowths from dendrites and
a. contain presynaptic synaptic vescicles
b. form myelin
c. are phagocytic
d. can have many synapses on their surface membrane
D
Lissauer's faciculus is concerned with the
a. anterior funiculus
b. dorso-lateral white matter
c. grey matter
d. thalamic nuclei
B
If a nerve cell does not develop chromotolysis after its axon is injured, the reason may be because
a. the injurty was too close to the soma
b. the dendrites substiuted for the axon
c. an axon collateral could be functioning
d. an astrocyctes prevenets chromotolysis
C
The laryngopharynx extends from the hyoid boine to the
a. trachea
b. palatine bone
e. esophagus
d. pharyngeal tonsil
Esophagus
Multiple sclerosis
a. exhibits demyelination
b. produces fast impulses
c. stimulates increased myelin formation
d. creats more nodes of Ranvier
A
Which is not correct for nasal epithelium?
a. warms the air
b. cleanses the air
c. moistens the air
d. cools the air
D
Only the axons from the _ half of the retina cross over in the optic chiasma
a. lateral
b. dorsal
c. verntral
d. medial
D
SHort axon neurons can often divide and are not found in the
a. granule cells in the cerebellumm
b. olfactory neurons
c. granule cells in the dentate gyrus
d. dorsal root ganglia
D
The lack of elasticity in the alvei, thus preventing recoil during repisration is called?
emphysema
The decussation of teh pyramids occurs at what level in the brain?
a. lower medulla
b. upper medulla
c. midbrain
d. mesencephalon
Lower medulla
If the white anterior commissure is cut in the spinal cord, what sensations would be affected?
a. touch and pressure
b. proprioception
c. temperature and pain
d. tickling and itching
c. temperature and pain
Myelin, a phospholid covering on nerve fibers is formed by _ in the CNS
oligodendroctyes
An inability to cross the eyes would most likely indicate a problem with which cranial nerve?
a. optic
b. oculomotor
c. abducens
d. facial
oculomotor
The substantia gelatinosa, related to a pain and temperature pathway, is found in teh
a. dorsal horn
b. midbrain
c. hindbrain
d. anterior horn
dorsal horn
The origin of the phrenic nerve to the diaphragm is found at this cord level
C4 and some C3-C5
The hippocampus is concerned with what functions?
a. planning ahead
b. judgment
c. recent memory processing and visual spatial acuity
d. sequencing information
C
THe cerebullum is derived from the?
metencephalon
Which is not appropriate for the cerebral peduncles?
a. found in the mesencephalon
b. are part of the ventral midbrain
c. are part of the dorsal midbrain
d. are part of an upper motor neuron
C
The respiratory lumen is normally kept open in young adults with _ cartilage
a. fibrocartilage
b. elastic
c. calcified
d. hyaline
D
Which is not a motor area of Brodmann in the frontal lobe
a. area 6
b. area 8
c. area 44
d. area 39
D
Tuberculosis is a
a. virus
b. bacterial infection
c. diseas of the trachea
d. disease which destroys teh cartilage of the repiratory brochiole
B
The lateral wall of the nasal cavity has bony projections
a. desgined to increase the SA
b. filled with holes to cleanse the air
c. to protect the masses of lymphatic nodules
d. all from the ethmoid bone
A
Posteriorly the nasal cavity has _ nares which communicate with teh nasopharynx
2
Both the frontal and the maxillary sinuses drain in to the?
Middle meatus
Which structure is not part of the nsal septum?
a. perpendicular plate of ethmoid
b. vomer
c. vestibule
d. hyaline artilage
C
Respiratory epithelium is designed to clean, warm and moisten the air. Which componenet does not participate in these functions?
a. goblet cells
b. cilia
c. epiglottis
d. venous plexus
C
Which does not play a role in the formation of the human voice?
a. the medial eleastic ligament
b. the lateral elastic ligament
c. the thyroarytenoid muscle
d. the glottis
A
Cancer of the lung commonly starts in the bronchi which lie between the
a. alveoli and terminal bronchioles
b. alveoli and respiratory bronchioles
c. trachea and bronchioles
d. terminal bornchioles and the repiratory bronchioles
C
Neurogenesis or the formation of the new nerve cells does not take place in the adult
a. olfactory epithelium
b. granule cells of teh cerebellum
c. anterior horn of the spinal cord
d. dentate gyrus in the telencephalon
C
The intial segment of an axon has which of the following characterisitcs
a. the highest threshold of any part of the nerve fibers
b. is filled with Nissl substance
c. arises from an axon collateral
d. the lowest threshold of any part of the axon
d
Which is incorrect regarding nodes of Ranvier?
a. collaterals sprout here
b. no myelin is presnet
c. nissl substance is beneath the axon membrane
d. Saltatory conduction occurs here
C
Which of the following is not correct regarding astrocytes?
a. all processes are the same; there are no axons and dendrites
b. influence the development of teh BBB
c. store glycogen to provide a fuel source for nerve cells
d. form the dural glial membrane around the CNS
D
Which is not coreect regarding microglia?
a. they are mesodermal in orgin
b. they migrate into the CNS along blood vessles
c. they form the pial-glial membrane
d. they are phagocytic
C
Presynaptic vesicles fuse with _ during impulse conductions
a. calmodulin
b. Nissl
c. postynapitc membrane
d. presynaptic membrane
D
If a person has her/his dorsal root nerve fibers cut, what cells show chromotolysis?
a. anterior horn celss
b. dorsal root ganglion cells
c. dorsal horn cells
d. lateral horn cells
B
A person with a spinal cord injury is unable to execute movements with the left hand. Where is a possible injury?
a. posterior horn
b. lateral spinothalamic tract
c. lateral cortical spinal tract
d. dorsal root ganglia
C
The region around the CNS containtg CSF is called the _ space
a. epidural
b. subdural
c. pial
d. subarachnoid
D
The second nuron in the pain and temperature pathway is located in the
a. medulla
b. substantia gelatinosa
c. thalamus
d. Dorsla root ganglion
B
The spinal cord is anchored to the coccyx by the
a. denticulate ligaments
b. filum terminale
c. sacral nerve rootes
d. dural sac
B
A spinal nerve to the upper and lower extremities contains
a. only afferent fibers
b. both afferent and efferent fibers
c. only efferent fibers
d. none of the above
B
The longitudinal fissure separates the two cerebral hemispheres. If you cut down through the fissure, what structure do you cut through first?
a. corpus callosum
b. basal ganlia
c. thalamus
d. corpora quadrigemina
A
A patient with damage to the cerebellum would probably exhibit
a. absence of the patellar reflex
b. inability to perform voluntary movements
c. inability to speak
d. inabiltiy to execute smooth, precise coordinated movements
D
The vital centers for the control of the heart beat and repiration are located in the
a. cerebrum
b. cerebellum
c. medulla oblongata
d. basal ganlia
C
Where sould you find some of this CSF fluid?
a. thalamus
b. ventricle
c. cerbral cortex
d. cerebellar cortex
B
The axon originating in Area 4, the precentral gyrus, cross in what part of the CNS?
a. pons
b. medulla
c. cerebral peduncles
d. anterior commissure
B
The axons originating from the substantia gelatinosa cross in what part of the spinal cord
a. posterior horn
b. posterior funiculus
c. posterior white commissure
d. anterior white commissure
D
The pain and temp fibers synapse
a. immediately upon entering the cord
b. 1-2 segments below their point of entry into the cord
c. in Lissaurer' fasciculus
d. 1-2 segments above their point of entry into the cord
D
A person whose right eye ball deviates continuously to the right has damage to what nerve?
A III
b. IV
c. abducens
d. trigeminal
III
Which cranial nerve allows you to feel a speck of dust on your cornea or a gentle breeze on your cheek?
a. glossopharyngeal
b. facial
c. trigeminal
d. trochlear
C
What part of the brain stem connects the cerebral cortex to the cerebellar cortex?
a. thalamus
b. pons
c. medulla
d. basal ganglia
B
A portion of the brain related to recent memory processing is the
a. cerebelum
b. hippocampus
c.corpora quadrigemina
d. substantia nigra
B
Medial strabismus is the name given to corssed eyes. Which cranial nerve could be damaged?
VI
What is the area of the cerebral cortex called which helps you what what you are going to do?
a. Broca's area
b. Wernicke's area
c. Supplementary motor area (6)
d. Angular gyrus (39)
C
The interventricular foramen is found between the lateral and thrid ventricle. What is the name of the part of the central canal between the II and IV verntricle?

a. aqueduct
b. canal Schlemm
c. parietal ventricle
d. Heshcl's canal
A
Which function is not assoicated with the frontal lobe?
a. seeing
b. speaking
c. hearing
d. planning ahead
C
Inability to localize a sound can be a defect in the
a. superior frontal lobe
b. superior colliculus
c. superioro temporal gyrus
d. inferior parietal lobe
C
Inability to recognize by touch is called asteriognosis. Which area of the cerebral cortex is involved?
a. middle temporal gyrus
b. superior occipital lobe
c. basal ganlia
d. inferior parietal lobe
D
A patient has problems with temperature control, water regulation, sleep and hormonal control over the gonads. Where is teh abnormality?
a. thalamus
b. phyothalams
c. cerebral cortex
d. inferior colliculus
B
Cataracts are due to
a. protein changes in the lens of the eye
b. endolymph increases in the lens
c. mucous membrane infiltration of the lens
d. cloudiness in the cornea
A
The cornea consists of _ which have no blood vessels amongst them
a. clear cartilage cells to support contact lenses
b. transparent collagenous fibers
c. transparent reticular fibers
d. only clear epithelial cells
B
The tarsal plates of made of dense CT to give shape to teh
a. cheek bones
b. eyelids
c. Eustachian tube
d. Middle ear
B
Conjunctiva is a mucous membrane found on the
a. posterior surface of teh cornea
b. anterior surface of the eyelid
c. posterior surface of the eyelid
d. posterior surface of the iris
C
Blockage of the canals of Schlemm at the junction of the cornea nad the sclera cuase
a. degeneration of the III cranial nerve
b. increased intraocular pressure found in glaucoma
c. decreased cmount of aqueous humor
d. conjunctivitus
B
What is not correct about the fovea centralis?
a. only cones are found here
b. it is found in the center of the macula lutea
c. acute vision is concentrated here
d. only rods are present
D
The basal ganlia modify
a. sensory input to the thalamus
b. skeletal muscle control
c. prefrontal cortical neruons
d. emotions from the inferior medial frontal gyrus
B