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386 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the 3 classes of fat?
- triglycerides

- phospholipids

- sterols
which class of fat is the most common type?
- triglycerides

(when we say "fat", this is usually what we mean)
what is the best known example of a sterol?
- cholesterol
what percentage of daily calories should come from fat?
- 25-35%
what is cholesterol?
- is a sterol, which are large molecules consisting of interconnected rings of carbon atoms with side chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen attached
where is cholesterol found?
- in all animal cell membranes
why do we need cholesterol for our bodies to function properly?
- it serves as the raw material for bile, vitamin D, and steroid hormones including the sex hormones
where is fat stored?
- in adipose tissue
the easiest way to increase risk of obesity is to increase consumption in?
- fat
what does monounsaturated mean?
- one point of unsaturation
what is an essential fatty acid?
- a fatty acid that the body either can't make or can't make in sufficient quantities to meet its needs
what does CVD stand for?
- Cardiovascular Disease
what are the two essential fatty acids?
- linoleic acid

- linolenic acid
which essential fatty acid is an omega-3?
- linolenic acid
which essential fatty acid is an omega-6?
- linoleic acid
other than omega-3, what else can linolenic acid be coverted to?
- EPA and DHA
other than omega-6, what else can linoleic acid be converted to?
- arachidonic acid
what is linoleic acid abundant in?
- vegetable oil
EPA and DHA....?
- are made in limited amounts in the body

- abundant in fish oils

- lower blood pressure

- prevent blood clot formation

- protect against irreg heartbeats

- may reduce inflammation

- essential for normal infant growth and development

- may support immune systems and inhibit cancers
when the diet is deficient of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acid), what are the symptoms?
- reproductive failure

- skin abnormalities

- kidney and liver disorders

- growth and vision problems in infants
how can we promote a good balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in our diet?
- most Americans get their omega-6 from vegetable oil, salad dressings, and margarine

- they need to balance this with more fish for omega-3 (about 2 servings of 3 oz fish per week)
what is the average intake of EPA and DHA (omega-3) per day?
- average is 150/ mg day

- recommended is 500 mg/day
what are triglycerides?
- glycerol + 3 fatty acids

- 95% of dietary fat and stored fat
what is saturated fatty acid versus unsaturated fatty acid?
- saturated: filled to capacity with hydrogen atoms

- unsaturated: missing hydrogen
what does polyunsaturated mean?
- two or more points of unsaturation (PUFA)
what are the different ways that fat melts?
- saturated fats: solid at room temperature

- unsaturated fats: liquids at room temperature
what are phospholipids?
- glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphorus
what makes phospholipids soluble in water?
- phosphorus part makes it soluble in water
what makes phospholipids soluble in fat?
- fatty acids make it soluble in fat

- therefore, can serve as an emulsifier
what is the key role of phospholipids?
- key role is in cell membranes
what forms plaques that cause atherosclerosis?
- cholesterol
what are sterols?
- large molecules consisting of interconnected rings of carbon atoms with side chains of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen attached
what are some major lipoproteins?
- chylomicrons

- VLDL

- LDL

- HDL
what does the body use the lipoproteins for?
- to carry fat
the just-eaten fat travels in the bloodstream as _____?
- chylomicrons
where do body tissues extract whatever fat they need from?
- chylomicrons
what is VLDL?
- Very-low-density lipoproteins

- they carry triglycerides and other lipids made in the liver to the body cells for use
what is LDL?
- low-density lipoproteins

- they transport cholesterol and other lipids to the tissues
what are LDL's made from?
- they are made from VLDL after they have donated many of their triglycerides to body cells
what is HDL?
- high-density lipoproteins

- they are ciritical in the process of carrying cholesterol away from body cells to the liver for disposal
what do LDL and HDL play major roles in?
- play major roles with regard to heart health and are the focus of most recommendations made for reducing the risk of heart disease
which lipoprotein do you want to have more of?
- HDL
what is the difference between LDL and HDL?
- LDL:
- larger, lighter, and richer in cholesterol
- delivers cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver the tissues
- less healthy

- HDL:
- smaller, desner, and packaged with more protein
- scavenge excess cholesterol and phospholipids from the tissues for disposal
- healthy
what levels of HDL and LDL affect the risk of heart disease?
- high LDL

- low HDL
what are trans fatty acids?
- they are a product of hydrogenation (that is mostly how they are formed)

- they occur in small amounts in nature, mostly dairy products

- they are a health risk
what are the health risks associated with trans fatty acids?
- raising LDL
- lowering HDL
- increasing tissue inflammation (a key player in heart disease)
- replacing heart-healthy oils
what is the largest contributor of trans fat to the U.S. diet?
- commericially fried foods
the more unsaturated a fatty acid is, the ______?
- softer it is at room temperature
what is an example of one of the most high oils in saturated fat?
- coconut oil
what do phospholipids that the food industry adds to products act as?
- emulsifiers
where are sex hormones manufactured from?
- cholesterol
when does cholesterol become harmful to the body?
- when it is deposited as plaque in the artery walls
where does fat digestion begin?
- in the mouth
what is the role of emulsification in the digestive process?
- emulsification is the process by which big fat drops are broken into smaller fat droplets, thereby increasing the surface area available to fat-digesting enzymes
what functions in energy storage and insulation?
- triglycerides
which lipoprotein reduces blood cholesterol levels?
- HDLs
what is an example of a way of raising blood cholesterol?
- increasing the consumption of saturated fatty acids
how much should the saturated fat intake be less than of the total energy intake according to the American Heart Assoc?
- less than 10% of total energy intake
what is an example of one of the best sources of EPA and DHA?
- fish
what is one thing that you can eat that will help counter some of the risk factors for CVD?
- fatty fish
what is olestra?
- a fat replacer
what is a benefit of olestra use?
- your blood cholesterol level will decline
what is an example of a type of food that would highly contribute to saturated fat in the diet?
- cheeses
what is the main health benefit of the Mediterranean diet?
- the relatively high use of olive oil
what is a benefit to using a spread containing sterol esters rather than using butter or margarine?
- sterol esters may lower blood cholesterol
what is a unhealthful aspect of using a spread containing sterol esters?
- sterol ester-containing spreads are high in fat and calories
why do moderate consumption of nuts confer cardiovascular benefits?
- because they are high in fiber and low in saturated fat
what is an example of somethings that will increase the amount of LDL in the blood?
- butter and stick margarine
what is something that fish is not a major dietary source of?
- linoleic acid
what is a major component of cell membranes?
- phospholipids
what fatty acids carry the max number of cell membranes?
- saturated fatty acids
what is a monoglyceride?
- composed of glycerol and a single fatty acid
what is chylomicron?
- formed in the lining of small intestine from fats and proteins
which lipoprotein transports fats from the liver?
- VLDL
which lipoprotein transports cholesterol to the liver?
- HDL
what is hydrogenation?
- converts fatty acids to the trans form
how many amino acids are there and how many are essential and how many are non-essential?
- There are 20 amino acids

- 9 are essential

- 11 are not essential
what are conditionally essentail amino acids?
- when under special circumstances, a nonessential amino acid can become essential
what are recycling amino acids?
- the body can recycle amino acids from proteins no longer needed
- these can then be used to build new proteins, or provide energy if glucose lacking in diet
how do amino acids build protein?
- link into long strands that coil and fold to make a wide variety of different proteins

- several strands may cluster together into a functioning unit, or a metal ion (mineral) or a vitamin may combine to the unit to activate it
what are the building blocks of protein?
- amino acids
in what order does genetic information in a cell go?
- DNA ---> RNA ---> protein-
what determines the sequence of amino acids in each finished protein?
genes
how does denaturization of proteins occur?
- by heat, radiation, alcohol, acids, bases, or salts of heavy metals

- during digestion, stomach acid denatures proteins, permitting digestive enzymes to make contact witht he peptide bonds and cleave them

- during cooking, denaturation also occurs
what is considered the "primary material of life"?
- proteins
what are the roles of proteins in the body?
- supporting growth and maintenance

- building enzymes, hormones, and other compounds

- buidling antibodies

- maintaining acid-base balance

- blood clotting

- providing energy and glucose
can protein be converted to glucose?
- when insufficient carbs and fat are consumed to meet the body's energy need, proteins are sacrificed to supply energy
when a protein arrives in a cell, it can be...?
- used as is to build protein

- altered somewhat to make another needed compound (like vitamin niacin)

- dismatled to use its amine group to build nonessential amino acid
what happens in a cell starved for energy with no glucose or fatty acids?
- the cell strips the amino acid of its amine group (nitrogen part) and uses the remainder of its structure for energy
what does a cell that has a surplus of energy and amino acid do?
- takes the amino acid apart

- excretes the amine group

- converts the rest to glucose or fat for storage
when are amino acids "wasted"?
- when energy is lacking from other sources

- when protein is overabundant

- when an amino acid is oversupplied in supplement form

- when the quality of the diet's protein is too low
which food groups provide the highest quality of protein?
- foods of animal origin (milk, cheese, yogurt, meat)

- soy products
which food groups provide lowest level of protein?
- vegetables, grains, and legumes other than soybeans
why do athletes take protein?
- to build muscle
what is the digestibility of proteins like?
- amino acids from animal proteins most easily digested and absorbed (over 90%)

- amino acids from legumes second most (80%)

- amino acids from plants vary (70 - 90%)
what is the DRI for protein?
- 10-35%

- 0.8 g per kg of body weight
how do you calculate the DRI for protein for an adult?
- to convert lbs to kg, divide weight in lbs by 2.2

- multiply the kg by 0.8 g

ex. 150 person

150/2.2 = 68 kg

68 x 0.8 = 54 grams of protein
(that is how much person should eat a day)
what is protein energy malnutrition (PEM)?
- happens when people consume too little proteins

- is the most widespread form of malnutrition in the world today
what are the two different forms of PEM?
- Kwashiorkor: protein deficiency with sufficient energy

- Marasmus: extreme food energy deficiency
what is the characteristic of Kwashiorkor?
- swollen belly due to edema and enlarged liver
what is nitrogen balance?
- protein recommendations are based on nitrogen balance studies, which compare nitrogen excreted from the body with nitrogen ingested with food
what does an amine group contain?
- nitrogen
how many essential amino acids are there?
- 9
what is a nonessential amino acid?
- one that is not required in the diet
what is the specific name given to the bond that joins the amino acids of a protein chain?
- peptide bond
what does a long chain of amino acids form?
- polypeptide
what is one of the best ways to increase muscle mass?
- exercise with weights
where does the digestion of a protein begin?
- in the stomach
why would a lack of stomach acid have an adverse impact on protein digestion?
- stomach acid both denatures dietary protein and activates digestive enzymes
after beig absorbed in the small intestine, amino acids are first delivered where?
- liver
what is the name of a compound that resists changes in pH?
- buffer
what are amine groups that are striped off when amino acids are degraded for energy converted into?
- urea by the liver
unlike fatty acids, what can excess amino acids be converted into?
- glucose
what type of individual is most likely to benefit from the consumption of protein/amino acid supplements?
- some critically ill malnourished individual
what has a great influence on the quality of dietary protein?
- digestibility and amino acid composition
what is the best method of food preparation for improving a protein's digestibility?
- steamed
what term refers to an amino acid whose lack inhibits protein synthesis?
- limiting amino acid
why would it be a good idea to have both beans and rice in your diet if you're a vegan?
- their proteins are complementary
- what do you call the concept of obtaining all essential amino acids you need from eating several different foods instead of consuming a single food?
- mutual supplementation
what is the easiest way to meet your essential amino acid needs?
- eat meat
which plant product is a source of high-quality protein?
- soy
what is the DRI for protein?
- 10-35% of energy intake
what is marasmus the result of?
- chronic PEM
what is the difference between kwashiokor and maramus?
- unlike a person with marasmus, a person with kwashiorkor may retain body fat
what benefits may be obtained from consiming a high-protein diet?
- none
what is a lacto-ovo-vegetarian?
- a vegetarian who consumes animal products such as milk and eggs
what is not a health benefit associated with a vegan diet?
- lower risk of nerve damage
who is the lowest risk of the problems associated with a vegan diet?
- adults
what are vegan diets not low in?
- fiber
what is an enzyme?
- protein catalyst
what is a hemoglobin?
- carries oxygen to body tissues
what is denaturation?
- change in a proteins shape that cause a loss of function
what is edema?
- accumulation of fluid in body tissue
what does an acid do?
- releases hydrogen when dissolved in water
what do bases do?
- accept hydrogens when dissolved in water
what is acidosis?
- indicated by below normal blood pH
what is alkalosis?
- indicated by above normal blood pH
what is urea?
- nitrogen-containing waste product of metabolism
what is collagen?
- protein of which ligaments and tendons are composes
what is a hormone?
- chemical messenger secreted by certain organs
what is hunger?
- craving for food
what is dysentery?
- causes diarrhea
what is tofu?
- made from soybeans
what is dipeptide?
- two amino acids joined together
what is a vitamin?
- an essentail, noncaloric, organic nutrient needed in tiny amounts in the diet
what is the role of vitamins?
- to help make possible the processes by which other nutrients are digested, absorbed, and metabolized or built into the body structure
what is the only disease that vitamins can cure?
- the one caused by a deficiency of that vitamin
what are the two classes that vitamins fall into?
- fat soluble

- water soluble
which vitamins are the fat soluble vitamins?
- A, D, E, K
where are fat soluble vitamins found?
- in fats and oils of foods

- stored in the liver and fatty tissues until needed
what is required for fat soluble vitamins to be absorbed?
- bile
do fat soluble vitamins have to be consumed daily?
- no, because they can be toxic if too much consumed
what are the different forms of vitamin A?
- beta-carotene (plant derived precurser)

- retinol (active form stored in liver)

- converted by cells into its other two active forms, retinal and retinoic acid
what does vitamin play a role in?
(jack of all trades)

- gene expression

- vision

- maintenance of body linings and skin

- immune defenses

- growth of bones and of the body

- normal development of cells

- reproduction
what type of role does vitamin A play when it comes to eyesight?
- plays role in process of light perception at the retina and

- maintanence of a healthy cornea
what can happen with vision if vitamin A runs low?
- night blindness

- keratinization of the cornea

- xerosis (drying)
what is xerophthalmia?
- thickening and permanent blindness
what are the general characteristics of vitamin d?
- can be self-synthesized w/help of sun

- whether made with sun or obtained from food, undergoes chemical transformations in the liver and kidneys to activate it
what are the roles of vitamin d?
- functions as a hormone to regulate blood calcium and phosphorus levels

- replenishes blood calcium by acting at the skeleton, digestive tract, and kidneys to raise calcium levels

- stimulates maturation of cells, including immune cells

- acts on genes, affecting how cells grow, multiply and specialize
what are deficiences of vitamin d?
- high blood pressure

- some common cancers

- rheumatoid arthritis

- multiple sclerosis

- psoriasis
what happens to children who get too little vitamin d?
- develop rickets
what happens to adults who get too little vitamin d?
- can result in osteomalacia
what is the most potentially toxic vitamin?
- vitamin d

(toxic to bones, kidneys, brain, nerves, heart, and arteries
how can people make a vitamin from sunlight?
- when ultraviolet light from the sun shines on a cholesterol compound in the human skin, the compound transforms into a vitamin d precursor and is absorbed directly into the blood

- over next day, liver and kidneys finish converting the precursor to active vitamind d
what are the intake recommendations for vitamin d?
- 5 microgram/day for adults 19-50 yrs
what is another name for vitamin e?
- aka tocopherol
what are the characteristics of vitamin e?
- antioxidant
what are deficiencies of vitamin e?
- almost never seen in healthy adults

- in infants, occurs in premature babies born before the transfer of the vtamin from mother to infant, which takes place in last weeks of pregnancy
Infants RBC lyse and they become anemic
what diseases can people with lower blood concentrations of vitamin e die from?
- more frequently from heart disease and cancer
what are some toxicities from vitamin e?
- increase in brain hemorrhages among smokers taking just 50 mg of vit e

- may also increase the effects of anticoagulant meds
what is the DRI of vitamin e?
- 15 mg/daily for adults

* on average, US intakes fall below this
what are some food sources of vitamin e?
- widely distributed in plant foods (fresh, raw oils, and seeds)
what are the roles of vitamin k?
- main function is to help synthesize proteins that help blood clot

- necessary for synthesis of key bone proteins
what are non-food sources of vitamin k?
- can be made by intestinal bacteria

- newborns are given does of it at birth
what are food sources of vitamin k?
- dark leafy greens

- cabbage-type veggies, liver
what are the toxicities of vitamin k?
- toxicity rare and no tolerable upper level intake

- toxicity causes jaundice and may occur if supplements of synthetic version are given too enthusiastically
what are the water-soluble vitamins?
- vitamin c and b
what are the characteristics of water-soluble vitamins?
- absorbed easily and exreted easily in urine
what is the role of vitamin c?
- assists enzymes involved in the formation and maintenance of collagen

- acts as antioxident esp protecting the immune system cells from free radicals generated during assault on invaders
what are deficiency symptoms of vitamin c?
- most scurvy symptoms due to collagen breakdown

- loss of appetite

- growth cessation

- tenderness to touch

- bleeding gums

- swollen ankles and wrists

- anemia

- red spots on skin

- weakness

- loose teeth
what are some hazardous effects of taking more than 2 g of vit c a day?
- alteration of the insulin response to carbs

- interference with blood clotting meds

- kidney stones

- gout

- digestive upsets
whats the DRI for vitamin c?
- 90 mg for men, 75 for women

for smokers: 125 for men, 110 for women
what are the food sources of vitamin c?
- fruits and vegetables
how does vitamin b play a role in metabolism?
- functions as part of coenzymes

- coenzymes help enzymes do their jobs

- thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, and biotin participate in the release of energy from th eenergy nutrients

- folate and vitamin B12 help cells multiply

- vitamin B6 helps the body use amino acids to synthesize proteins
what happens in vitamin b deficiency?
- every cell is affected
what are symptoms of vitamin b deficiency?
- nausea, severe exhaustion, irritability, depression, forgetfulness, loss of appetite and weight
what are different types of vitamin B?
- thiamin

- niacin

- folate

- vitamin B12

- vitamin B6

- biotin and pantothenic acid
what are the characteristics of thiamin?
- plays a critical role in the energy metabolism of all cells

- occupies a site on nerve cell membranes

- nerve processes and their responding muscles depend heavily on thiamin
what is beriberi?
- thiamin deficiency that was first observed in East Asia, where most people consume mostly rice

- polished rice became widespread, and beriberi became epidemic
what is Wernicke-Korakoff syndrome?
- a thiamin deficiency caused by alcohol abuse

- the alcohol impairs thiamin absorption
what are symptoms of Wernicke-Korakoff syndrome?
- apathy, irritability, mental confusion, memory loss, jerky movement, staggering gait
what are the food sources of thiamin?
- pork products, sunflower seeds, enriched/whole grain cereals, legumes
when thiamin is deficient, what else is most likely also?
- riboflavin
what does riboflavin play a role in?
- energy metabolism
what are the characteristics of niacin?
- participates in energy metabolism of every cell
what is pellagra?
- niacin deficiency

- was in US in early 1900s; still common in parts of Africa and Asia
what are the symptoms of pellagra?
- 4 D's: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death
what is the key nutrient that prevents pellagra?
- niacin

- or consuming enough tryptophan, which can be converted into niacin in the body
why would niacin be taken as a drug?
- as a treatment to lower blood lipids associated with cardiovascular disease
what are symptoms of niacin toxicity?
- drop in blood pressure

- liver injury

- peptic ulcers

- vision loss

- niacin flush
what is the role of folate?
- helps synthesize important DNA and so is important for making new cells
what does folate deficiency cause?
- anemia, diminished immunity, and abnormal digestive function

- also related to cervical cancer (in women who have HPV), breast cancer (in women who drink alcohol), and pancreatic cancer (in men who smoke)
how does folate help in birth defects?
- intakes during pregnancy can reduce a woman's chances of having a child with neural tube defect (NTD)
what is folic acid?
- an absorbable, synthetic form of folate
what is another vitamin that is closely related to folate?
- vitamin B12

(because each depends on the other for activation)
what are the sources of folate?
- green leafy veggies

- other raw fruits/veggies

- enriched grain products
what are the roles of B12?
- helps maintain nerves and is part of coenzymes needed in new blood cell synthesis
what are symptoms of deficiency of either folate or B12?
- presence of immature red blood cells
what is needed for the absorption of B12?
- intrinsic factor (compound made in the stomach)
what are the roles of vitamin B6?
- participates in more than 100 reactions in the body

- needed to convert one amino acid to another amino acid that is lacking

- aids in conversion of tryptophan to niacin

- plays roles in synthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitters

- assists in releasing glucose from glucogen

- has roles in immune function and steroid hormone activity

- critical to fetal nervous system development
what are the roles of biotin and pantothenic acid?
- both are important in energy metabolism
at birth, babies get a single dose of what vitamin?
- vit K
women of childbearing age need what supplement to reduce the risk of NTD?
- folate
in general, what factor plays a role in making it easier to attain toxicity with fat-soluble vitamins than with water-soluble ones?
- fat-soluble vitamins are stored in fat while water-soluble vitamins aren't AND fat-soluble vitamins are less readily excreted than water-soluble ones
in what way do vitamins differ from carbs, proteins, and fats?
- vitamins are needed in smaller amounts and contain no calories
what is a vitamin A precursor?
- beta-carotene
what is a non-dairy source of vitamin D?
- synthesis from the sun
what symbols on a supplement indicate that the supplement contains the nutrients stated on the packaging and that the nutrient dissolve (so it can be absorbed) in the digestive track?
- USP
xerophthaimia is the hardening of the cornea that can lead to blindness, what vitamin causes this?
- vitamin A
what is the best dietary source of vitamin E?
- oils
which vitamin helps to synthesize proteins for blood clotting and also is important for the synthesis of bone protein?
- vitamin K
what foods are a major dietary source of vitamin K?
- leafy green vegetables
what are all the fat- soluble vitamins?
- Vitamin D, E, A, and K
what name is given to a vitamin C deficiency?
- scurvy
what is a coenzyme?
- molecule that combines with, and activates an enzyme
whats the major function of the B vitamins?
part of coenzymes that play a role in energy metabolism
which foods contribute the most to dietary riboflavin?
- milk and milk products
which vitamin plays a role in energy metabolism?
- riboflavin
why are dietary recommendations for niacin given as niacin equivalents (NE)?
- because the body can convert dietary tryptophan into niacin
which coenzyme plays a role in the synthesis of DNA?
- folate
of all the vitamins, which is the most likely to interact with medications?
- folate
which vitamin is involved in both new cell synthesis and maintenance of nerve cells?
- vitamin B12
which vitamin requires stomach acidity and intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
- B 12
what deficiency is beriberi caused by?
- thiamin
what do high levels of homocysteine correlate with?
- an increased risk of CVD
which type of person is LEAST likely to benefit from taking a vitamin supplement?
- healthy middle aged males
what vitamin deficiency causes rickets and osteomalacia?
- vitamin D
Which vitamins play a major role as antioxidants?
- beta carotene

- vitamin C

- vitamins E
what is a precursor?
- a substance from which another substance is formed
what percent of US adults are overweight or obese?
- 66%

(33% of children/teens)
what are the risk factors for overweight people?
- hypertension, heart disease, stroke

- diabetes

- hernias, flat feet, sleep apnea

- some cancers

- high accident rate

- arthritis
what is visceral fat?
- central obesity; located deep within the central abdominal area
what factors affect body fat distribution?
- gender

- menopause

- smoking/alcohol

- physical activity
what 3 indicators do experts use to evaluate risks to health from obesity?
- BMI

- waist circumference

- disease risk profile and family medical history
what happens when more food is consumed than needed?
- excess fat accumulates in the fat cells in the adipose tissue, where its stored

- when energy supply runs low, stored fat is withdrawn
What are the main derivatives of Branchial arch 1?
Supply by: V2, V3

Cartilage: Meckel's cartilage:
Mandible, Malleus, incus, sphenoMandibular Ligament

Muscles of MASTICATION (temporalis, Masseter, Lat/Med pterygoids)
Mylohyoid, Ant. belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, ant 2/3 of tounge

Arteries: Maxillary arter (br ext carotid)
what is the only contributor to the "energy in" side of the change in energy store equation?
- foods and beverages
what is the contributor to "energy out" side of the change in energy equation?
- more difficult to determine and has to do with lifestyle and metabolism
how many calories does 1 lb of fat equal?
- 3500 calories
what are the 3 components of the body's energy expenditure ("energy out") ?
- basal metabolism

- voluntary activities

- thermic effect of food
what are the reference man and woman numbers for the DRI to set the Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)
- for man: "active" physical activity level, 22.5 BMI, 5'10" tall, 154 lbs

- for woman: "active" physical activity level, 21.5 BMI, 5'4" tall, 126 lbs
what does the equation to set the EER include?
- gender

- age (BMR declines by average 5% per decade)

- physical activity

- body size and weight

- growth
how do you determine your BMI?
- weight (lbs) x 703/height (in)^2
what are the ranges of the BMI?
- BMI < 18.5 underweight

- BMI 18.5 - 24.9 normal weight

- BMI 25 - 29.9 overweight

- BMI > 30 obese
how do you estimate body fat using anthropometry?
- skin fold test

- waist circumference
how do you measure body fat using density?
- underwater weighing

- air displacement methods
what is the ideal body fat for men and women?
- men: 12-20% weight as fat

- women: 20-30%

*varies according to gender, lifestyle and stage of life
what are the two broad categories by which eating signals are regulated?
- "go" mechanisms

- "stop" mechanisms
what are the "go" signals for eating?
- hunger and appetite
what is hunger?
- physical need for food
what is appetite?
- psychological desire for food
can you experience appetite without hunger?
- yes
what is hunger stimulated by?
- absence of food in the digestive tract
what is ghrelin?
- hormone produced by the stomach and it signals the hypothalamus to stimulate eating
what are the "stop" signals for eating?
- satiation and satiety
when does satiation occur?
- when the digestive organs signal the brain that enough food has been consumed
what is satiety?
- the feeling of fullness that lasts until the next meal
what outweighs what in the appetite control system?
- hunger outweighs satiety in the appetite control system
what is leptin?
- a satiety hormone; its the adipose tissue hormone that suppresses appetite in response to a gain in body fat
what patterns of behavior are associated with successful weightloss?
- keeping healthy eating routines

- keep exercising

- keep track of calorie and fat intakes in the body
at what point in starvation is the body able to use fat as fuel?
- less than a day into fast, the liver's glycogen is used up

- body sacrifices protein in its lean tissue to supply raw materials from which to make glucose

- if body were to continue consuming its lean muscle, death would occur in 10 days
what does the body do to prevent death during starvation?
- body converts fat to ketone to help feed the nervous system

- after about 10 days of fasting, brain and nervous system can meet most f their energy needs using ketone bodies

- thanks to ketosis, a healthy person starving with average body fat content can live totally without food as long as six to eight weeks
whats the role of physical activity when it comes to weight loss?
- it greatly augments diet in weight loss efforts

- improves health and body composition

- increases metabolism and reducing appetite

- helps with spot reducing
what are some strategies for someone trying to gain weight?
- physical activity to gain muscle and fat

- choose foods with high energy density

- portion sizes and meal spacing

- weight-gain supplements

- avoid tobacco
what is behavior modification?
- involves changing behaviors and thought processes

- based on knowledge that habits drive behaviors
what are cognitive skills?
- changes in conscious thought that improce adherence to modification
what are the theories for obesity?
- enzyme theory (excess fat may stem from elevated concentrations of an enzyme)

- fat cell number theory (fat determined by both the number and size of fat cells)

- external cues theory (studies of human behavior identify stimuli that lead to overeating - people can override signals of satiety and hunger and eat whenever they want. variety and availability are strong influences to eat when not hungry)
what is anorexia nervosa?
- eating disorder characterized by refusal to maintain minimally normal body weight and shape
what is bulimia nervosa?
- recurring episodes of binge eating combined with a morbid fear of becoming fat; usually followed by self-induced vomiting, or purging
what is difference between visceral fat and subcutaneous fat?
- visceral: stored within abdominal cavity

- subcutaneous: fat stored directly under the skin
what is basal metabolism?
- sum total of all the involuntary activities that are necessary to sustain life, including circulation, respiration, temperature maintenance, etc.
can certain foods increase/decrease your BMR?
- certain foods can't do that for the long run by only temporarily because of their thermic effect
how does muscle mass affect your BMR?
- the more lean tissue, the higher the BMR

- a typical man has greater lean body mass than a woman, making his BMR higher
how does starvation affect your BMR?
- fasting/starvation hormone levels lower the BMR
which body fat storage pattern is most associated with health risks?
- central abdominal fat
what is one thing not associated with central obesity?
- all impact health
what would be a BMI range considered overweight for an average adult?
- 25-29.9
- what is the BMI of a person who is 5'7" and 160 lbs?
- 25
what is a weight circumference that provides lowest health risk?
- 35" for women, and 40" for men
approx. how much body fat will you gain if you consume as little as 1750 extra calories over the course of a year?
- 0.5 lbs
a food containing 34 g carbs, 20 g fats, 5 g protein, and 1 g alcohol, will provide how many kilocalories?
- 343
what is a factor that reduces the BMR?
- fasting
what does not contribute to the BMR?
- digestion
considering the TEF of 10%, how many grams of carbs would you need to consume to obtain 90 kilocalories from that carb?
- 25 grams
what is an acceptable body fat range for an average adult female?
- 20-30%
which important factor does BMI fail to consider?
- lean body mass relative to fat body mass and location of fat
what type of adult would be considered healthy even with a higher % of body fat than other people?
- an adult fisherman living in the north of the Arctic circle
which region of the brain controls hunger?
- hypothalamus
from a hormonal perspective, why does surgical removal of a part of the stomach decrease appetite?
- the stomach secretes the appetite stimulate ghrelin; the less stomach, the less ghrelin secreted
which of the energy-yielding nutrients is most satiating?
- protein
which of the theories of obesity involves the body "choosing" a weight that it wants to be?
- set-point theory
what is the current DRI for exercise?
- 60 mins of walking per day
what is a healthy approach to increasing body mass?
- engage in strength-building exercises
what is not a contributor to obesity?
- eating foods of low energy density
how are ketones produced?
- incompletely broken down fat molecules are combined to form ketones
under extreme conditions, such as starvation, what can the brain adapt to using for energy?
- ketones
the initial weight loss on a low carb diet is mainly?
- water and glycogen
what is not a weakness of a high-protein diet plan?
- too little fat
what is considered a reasonable rate (not too fast, but not too slow) of weight loss for an overweight person?
- 10% of weight in 12 months
what is the key characteristic of anorexia nervosa?
- self starvation
what does overweight mean?
- moderate overfatness
what does underweight mean?
- too little body fat for health
what is obesity?
- overfatness with adverse health effects
what does "wasting" mean?
- loss of body tissues that accompany certain diseases
what are endorphins?
- an opiate that may enhance the desire to eat
what does "weight cycling" mean?
- yo-yo dieting
what is cellulite?
- a form of fat not recognized in science
what is heat stroke?
- an acute and life-threatening reaction to heat buildup in the body
what are the symptoms of heat stroke?
- clumsiness

- confusion, other mental changes, loss of consciousness

- dizziness

- headache

- internal (rectal) temperature above 104

- nausea

- stumbling

- sudden cessation of sweating (hot, dry skin)
how is heat stroke treated?
- stopping your activity

- sipping cold fluid

- seeking shade

- medical attention
what is lactate?
- produced by the anaerobic breakdown of glucose during intense activity (anaerobic activity)

- travels from muscles to liver where its converted back to glucose
what are the health benefits of physical activity?
- more restful sleep

- improved nutritional health

- improved body composition

- improved bone density

- enhanced resistance to colds and other infectious diseases

- lower risks of some types of cancer

- stronger circulation and lung function

- lower risks of cardiovascular disease

- lower risks of type 2 diabetes

- reduced risk of gallbladder disease (women)

- lower incidence and severity of anxiety and depression

- stronger self-image

- longer lie and higher quality of life in the later years
what are the four essentials of fitness?
- flexibility

- muscle strength

- muscle endurance

- cardiorespiratory endurance
why does vitamin E merit special attention for active people?
- during prolonged, high-intensity activity, muscle's consumption of oxygen increases tenfold or more, enhancing production of free radicals

- since vit E is an antioxident, some athletes take megadoses of it to prevent oxidative damage to muscles
what are the DRI recommendations for protein for endurance athletes?
- 1.2-1.6
what are the DRI recommendations for protein for strength or speed athletes?
- 1.6-1.7
how does caffeine affect athletic performance?
- in some cases it seems to assist it, and in others, has no effect

- most competitions forbid caffeine use in amounts greater than 800 mg (5-6 cups of strong coffee)
how many calories of glycogen does the typical person store?
- stores are limited to less than 2000 calories of energy
how many calories of fat does the typical person store?
- unlimited amounts and can provide more than 70,000 calories and fuel hours of activity
how long do glycogen stores last during vigorous exercise?
- about 2 hours
what is muscle strength?
- ability of muscles to work aginst resistance
what is muscle endurance?
- ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly within a given time without becoming exhausted
what are the benefits of weight training?
- builds muscle strength and endurance

- offers health and fitness benefits

- reduces risk of cardiovascular disease, improves mobility, and helps maximize and maintain bone mass
how long should one exercise in order to start burning fat as fuel?
- 20 mins at least
what is used up during the first 10 mins of exercise?
- glucogen used by muscles
what is used up during the first 20 mins of moderate activity?
- about 1/5 of available glycogen used up
what is aerobic exercise?
- requiring oxygen

- aerobic activity strengthens the heart and lungs by requiring them to work harder than normal to deliver oxygen to the tissues
what is cardiorespiratory endurance?
- the ability to perform large muscle dynamic exercise of moderate to high intensity for prolonged periods
what is cardiorespiratory endurance characterized by?
- increased cardiac output and oxygen delivery

- increased heart strength and stroke volume

- slowed resting pulse

- increased breathing efficiency

- improved circulation

- reduced blood pressure
what is anaerobic metabolism?
- doesn't require oxygen

- may require strength, but doesn't work the heart and lungs very hard for a sustained period
what does ergogenic mean?
- external influences that can be determined to enhance performance
what is not a benefit of cardiorespiratory conditioning?
- increased muscle mass
how does physical activity affect total cholesterol and HDL levels?
- physical activity lowers total cholesterol and raises HDL
what is an exercise regime that will increase muscle strength?
- heavy weight with a low number of repetitions
what is true with regard to glycogen stored in the liver and glycogen stored in muscle?
- glycogen stored in the liver can be used to raise blood suga level

- glycogen sotred in muscle is only used to provide energy to muscle cells
what is one of the best diets for promoting an athlete's endurance?
- high carbs
what activity would be most reliant on energy produced by anaerobic metabolism?
- 100-year sprint
for a physically fit individual, which activity one of the most likely to result in the accumulation of lactic acid?
- doing 10 repetitions of lifting as much weight as you can as fast as you can
lactic acid is produced by the anarobic breakdown of?
- glucose
what does the liver convert lactic acid into?
- glucose
for an athlete, why might it be advantageous to consume high-glycemic index foods after strenuous exercise?
- consumption of such foods will rapidly restore depleted glycogen stores
as a result of training, muscle uses ______ than does untrained muscle.
- less glucose and more fat
to an endurance athlete, what are the advantages of consuming a high-fat, low-carb diet?
- to an endurance athlete, there aren't any advantages of such a diet
what is the currently recommended fat intake for endurance athletes?
- 20-30% of total calorie intake
what activity would utilize the least amount of body fat?
- doing 10 repetitions of lifting as much weight as you can as fast as you can
which activity will contribute least to increasing VO2 max?
- doing 10 repetitions of lifting as much weight as you can
which activity will increase BMR for the shortest span of time following the activity?
- doing 10 reps of lighting as much weight as you can
what is an activity that would be most dependent on protein for energy?
- running a marathon
some athletes might benefit from taking what type of supplements?
- iron
what role of vitamin E might provide to be of benefit to an athlete?
- vitamin E is an antioxidant
what type of athlete would be at greatest risk of iron deficiency?
- adolescent vegetarian female
what is sports anemia?
- a temporary type of anemia that is caused by the destruction of older red blood cells
whats the most important thing a person can do when engaged in a physical activity?
- consume water
a water loss of as little as about _____ body weight can reduce a person's ability to do muscular work.
1-2%
a water loss of as little as about _____ is likely to cause a person to collapse.
7%
what can be the result of using salt tablets to replace electrolytes?
- dehydration
what is the best choice for fluid replacement for a noncompetitive, everday active, person?
- water
what is a common symptom of both heat stroke and hypoatremia?
- confusion
why is it a bad idea to replenish lost fluids by drinking beer?
- beer contains alcohol
for an athlete, what is the recommended contribution of protein to energy needs?
- 10-20%
what would be a good choice for a pregame meal?
- water and a banana
what is a substance that might actually enhance performance?
- caffeine
what is an effect of anabolic steroid use?
- the use of anabolic steroids enhances performance
what does "training" mean?
- regular practice of an activity
what does flexibility mean?
- capacity of joints to move through a full range of motion
what is the ability of muscle to oppose resistance?
- muscle strength
what is the exhaustion resistance of muscle?
- muscle endurance
what is hypertrophy?
- growth in size
what is atrophy?
- decrease in size
what is myoglobin?
- oxygen-carrying protein of muscle
what type of training is weight training?
- resistance training
what is produced under anaerobic conditions?
- lactic acid
wht is hypothermia?
- below normal body temperature
what is hyponatremia?
- decreased concentration of blood sodium
what is VO2 max?
- maximum rate at which an individual consumes oxygen
what is a reaction to an excessively high body temperature?
- heat stroke