Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Normal resident flora
1. refers to a large array of microorganisms that favorably inhabit the human body in abundance
Some pathogens can be found in the normal flora but generally donÕt cause problems because
competition limits their growth ability
1) In a compromised state they can cause problems = opportunistic pathogens
Flora of Specific Regions
1. skin
2. Gastroinstestianl track-
mouth and large intestine
3. Respiratory tract
4. Urogenital tract- Vigona
and urethra
A) Flora resides in or on the skin layer
B) Dryness of the skin, humidity, occupational exposure, and clothing influence the make-up of the flora
2 distinct population in the skin
1. Transient flora
2. Resident flora
Transient Flora
a) clings to the surface but doesnÕt usually grow there
b) acquired during routine exposure to the environment or other people
c) is drastically influenced by hygiene
Resident flora
b) population is more stable and predictable and less influenced by hygiene
c) primarily composed of bacteria (including Staphylococcus & Corynebacterium) and fungi (yeasts)
Gastroinstestinal tract- Mouth
Streptococcus is most common species
Gastrointestininal Large Intestine & Rectum
-Almost entirely composed of anaerobes

-Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, & Clostridium are prevalent

- Coliforms, including E.
coli are found in smaller numbers
Respiratory Tract
-Staphylococcus, Neisseria, Haemophilus are prevalent
Urogenital tract
A) Urethra
Streptococci, Staphylococci, Corynebacterium, and occasionally Coliforms
Urogenital tract Vagina
1) Before puberty
2) After puberty
1) Diptheriods, Staphylococci, Streptococci, & some Coliforms

2)Lactobacilli becomes prevalent
A) Refers to
Two types? True vs. Opportunistic pathogens
microorganismÕs potential to cause an infection or disease
1)microbes with the ability to cause disease in individuals with normal immune systems
2)cause disease when the defenses are compromised
Course/phases of infectious disease
-This is the degree of pathogenicity of an organism
1. Incubation period
2. Illiness phase
3. Convalescence state
Incubation phase

Illness stage
a. Acute
b. Chronic
c. Latent

Convalescence stage
-The time bw exposure and onset of illness (days-yrs)

-Show signs and symptoms
a. Rapid onset last short time eg strep throat
b. develop slowly last long ex tuberculosis
c. Microbe continues to exist in host without causing symptoms eg. chicken pox or shingles

-Stage of recuperation and recovery
Portal entry or routes of microbes to enter the body
1. Skin
2. GI tract
3. Respiratory tract
Four ways that microbe invade
1. Adhere
2. colonization
3. Avoiding the host defenses
4. Tissue damage
3 ways how microbes avoid the host defenses
1. Hide within the cells
2. Inhibit phagocutosis
3. Avoid antibodies
Two things that microbes use to damage the tissue
1. Enzymes- to break down a host defenses and allow the microbe to move deeper into the tissue

2. Baterial toxin- exotoxin and endotoxin
(a) Exotoxin and examples
released by living bacterial cells into infected tissue

(a) Neurotoxins – damage nervous tissue (Tetanus, Botulism)
(b) Enterotoxins – cause symptoms associated with intestinal disturbances (Cholera)
(c) Cytotoxins – damage cell membranes or interfere with metabolism (Diptheria, Shigella)

iii) Superantigens - override the specificity of the T cell response
(a) cause systemic toxic effects due to massive release of cytokines
cause systemic toxic effects due to massive release of cytokines
systematic infection and characteristics
Spreads to several sites and tissue fluids usually in the bloodstream

) bacteremia - bacteria in bloodstream
b) toxemia- toxins in bloodstream
c) viremia - viral particles in bloodstream
d) septicemia - life-threatening illness from infectious agents in the bloodstream