Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Germinal period
The first two weeks of development after conception; characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation.
Embryonic period
Approximately the third through the eighth week after conception, the period during which the basic forms of all body structures develop.
Fetal period
The ninth week after conception until birth, the period during which the organs of the developing person grow in size and mature in functioning.
Beginning about a week after conception, the burrowing of the organism into the lining of the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected during growth.
Length of pregnancy
266 days or 38 weeks
The name for the developing organism from about three through eight weeks.
The name for the developing organism from eight weeks after conception until birth. When it is born—even pre-term at 22 weeks or post-term at 41 weeks—it is called a baby.
The third month
Although choromsomes determin sex, not until the third month do the sex organs take shape. At the end of the third month, the fetus has all its body parts, weighs approximately 3 oz. and is about 3 in. long.
Middle three months
Preparing to survive outside the womb. Heartbeat becomes stronger and the digestive and excretory systems develop. Fingernails, toenails, and buds for teeth form, and hair. The brain is even more impressive, increasing about six times in size and developing mnay new neurons.
Age of viability
The age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus can survive outside the mother’s uterus if specialized medical care is available.
Chances for survival at 22, 26, and 28 weeks?
Babies born before 22 weeks rarely survive. At 26 weeks, the survival rate improves 50%. At 28 weeks, chances for survival has increased to 95%. Weight is also crucial to viability. Girls have better odds.
Final three months
Maturation of respiratory and cardiovascular systems.
Agents and conditions, including viruses, drugs, chemicals, stressors, and malnutrition, that can impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects or even death.
Behavioral teratogens
Teratogens that can harm the prenatal brain, affecting the future child’s intellectual and emotional functioning.
Risk analysis
The process of weighing the potential outcomes of a particular event, substance, or experience to determine the likelihood of harm. In teratology, risk analysis involves an attempt to evaluate all the factors that increase or decrease the likelihood that a particular teratogen will cause damage.
Critical period
In prenatal development, the time when a particular organ or other body part is most susceptible to teratogenic damage.
Threshold effect
The condition whereby a teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level (the threshold).
Example of threshold
Vitamin A is part of a good prenatal diet, but more than 10,000 units per day may be too much and 50,000 units can cause abnormalities in fetus's body.
Interaction effect
The condition whereby the risk of a teratogen causing harm increases when it occurs at the same time as another teratogen or risk.
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
A virus that gradually overwhelms the body’s immune responses, causing AIDS, which makes the individual vulnerable to opportunistic infections.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
A cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and retarded mental development, caused by the mother’s drinking alcohol when pregnant.
Genetic vulnerability
Organism's genes and enzymes. Gov't mandated that all breakfast cereals be fortified with folic acid.
Low birth weight
A birth weight of less than 5 ½ pounds
Preterm birth
Birth that occurs 3 weeks or more before the full term of pregnancy has elapsed—that is, at 35 or fewer weeks after conception.
Small for gestation age
A birthweight that is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception. For example, a 5-pound newborn is SGA if born on time, but not SGA if born two months early.
Apgar scale
A means of quickly assessing a newborn’s body functioning. The baby’s color, heart rate, reflexes, muscle tone, and respiratory effort are scored (from 0 to 2) at one minute and five minutes after birth, and compared with an ideal for healthy babies (a perfect 10).
Cesarean section
A surgical childbirth, in which incisions through the mother’s abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly, instead of being delivered through the vagina. 22% of births in US.
Cerebral palsy
A disorder that results from damage to the brain’s motor centers. People with CP have difficulty with muscle control, which can affect speech or other body movements.
-A lack of oxygen that, if prolonged, can cause brain damage or death.
Kangaroo care
Care that occurs when the mother of a low-birthweight infant spends at least an hour a day holing the infant between her breasts, like a kangaroo who carries her immature newborn in her pouch. If the infant is capable, he or she can easily breast-feed. These babies sleep deeper and spend more time alert. By 6 months infants were more responsive to their mothers.
Parental alliance
Cooperation between mother and father because of their mutual commitment to their children. In a parental alliance, both parents agree to support each other in their shared parental roles.
Postpartum depression
A mother’s feelings of sadness, inadequacy, and hopelessness in the days and weeks after giving birth. These feeling are partly physiological (especially hormonal) and partly cultural, particularly if the woman does not receive adequate assistance and encouragement from the baby’s father and other helpers.
Parent-infant bond
A strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold, examine, and feed their newborn