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43 Cards in this Set

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any interdependent set of urban settlements within a given region
Urban Systems
refers to the physical structure and organization of cities in their land use, layout, and built environment
Urban form
the social and demographic composition of city districts and neighborhoods
Urban ecology
describes the way of life fostered by urban settings in which the number, physical density, and variety of people often result in distinctive attitudes, values, and patterns of behavior
Urbanism
those that serve as a link between one country or region and others because of their physical situation
Gateway Cities
a city that is seen at the time as the embodiment of surprising and disturbing changes in economic/social/cultural life
Shock Cities
cities that were deliberately established or developed as administrative or commercial centers by colonial or imperial powers
Colonial Cities
usually established by colonial administrations in a location where no significant urban settlements had previously existed
Pure Colonial City
usually grafted onto an existing settlement, taking advantage of a good site and a ready supply of labor
Other Colonial City
a settlement in which certain types of products and services are available to consumers
Central Place
seeks to explain the tendency for central places to be organized in hierarchical systems
Central Place Theory
the nth largest city in a country or region is 1/n the size of the largest city in that country or region
rank-size rule
occurs when the population of the largest city in an urban system is disproportionately large in relation to the second and third-largest cities in that system
Primacy
when cities economic/political/cultural functions are disproportionate to their population
Centrality
when cities grow more rapidly than the jobs and housing they can sustain
Overurbanization
residential developments on land that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
Squatter settlements
very large cities characterized by both primacy and a high degree of centrality within their national economy
megacities
economic sector that involves a wide variety of economic activities whose common feature is that they take place beyond official record and are not subject to formalized systems of regulation and remuneration
Informal Sector
Occurs when cities experience a net loss of population to smaller towns and rural areas. this process results in the deconcentration of population within an urban system
Counterurbanization
growth of population in central cores following a period of decline in population
Reurbanization
an intense geographical differentiation with cities/parts of cities engaged in different ways in ever broadening and increasingly complex circuits of economic and technological exchange
Splintering Urbanism
a hypothetical uniform plane: flat with no variations in its physical attributes
Isotropic Surface
territorial and residential clustering of specific groups or subgroups of people
Congregation
population subgroups that are seen as different form the general population
Minortiy Groups
combined result of congregation and discrimination- spatial separation of specific subgroups within a wider population
segregation
dominated by internal cohesion and identity(Orthodox Jews)
enclaves
more the product of discrimination than congregation(African Americans)
ghettos
based on persistent arrival of new minority group members(Italian immigrants)
colonies
a city’s nucleus of commercial land uses
Central Business District
mixture of growth/change/decline
Zone in Transition
process of neighborhood change whereby one social/ethnic group succeeds another in a residential area. the displaced group then invades another area
Invasion and succession
involves the invasion of older/centrally located/working-class neighborhoods by higher income households seeking the character and convenience of less expensive and centrally located residences
Gentrification
occurs when increasing limitations on tax revenues combine with increasing demands for expenditures on urban infrastructure and city services
Fiscal Squeeze
transmission of poverty from one generation to the next through a combination of domestic circumstances
Cycle of poverty
marking off bad risk neighborhoods on a city map and then using the map to determine loans
Redlining
a group of individuals who experience a form of poverty form which it is very difficult to escape
underclass
new buildings blend artfully with old ones
Beaux Arts
style with linear clusters of high density medium rise apartment blocks
Modern Movement
people work less than full time even though they would prefer to work more hours
underemployment
juxtaposition in a geographic space of the formal and informal sectors of the economy
Dualism
nodal concentrations of shopping and office space situated on the fringes of metropolitan areas
edge cities
new tracts of sprawling low density auto-dependent suburbs
boomburbs
a package of suburban land-use planning principles designed to curb sprawl
Smart Growth