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104 Cards in this Set

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What is Political Geography?
Study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena, and their impact on other spatial components of society and culture.
What do political geographers study?
- How people have organized the surface into countries and alliances
- Reasons underlying the observed arrangements
- The conflicts that result from this type of organization
What is a state?
Independent political unit occupying a defined, permanently populated territory and has full sovereign control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Facts about States
- does NOT refer to states within countries like AR, AL, TX
- Not all recognized territorial entities are states
- has Sovereignty
What is sovereignty?
Independence from control of its internal affairs by other states.
Development of states
- We can trace it back to the Fertile Crescent region in the ancient Middle East.
- 1st states to evolve in Mesopotamia were city-states
What is a city-state?
Sovereign state that comprises a town and the surrounding countryside.
3 facts about city-states
- walls created city boundaries
- the city controlled the agricultural land outside the walls to produce food for urban residents
- country-side provided defense from other city-states
the Roman Empire
- contolled most of Europe, North Africa, and Southwest Asia
- 38 provinces all using the same laws created in Rome
- empire collapsed bc of internal disputes
- European part of empire divided into estates owned by nobles
- around 1100 AD, consolidation of neighboring estates began under control of a handful of kings
Views of the States
- many states are result of Euro. expansion from 17th-19th centuries when much of Asia, Africa, and the Americas were divided into colonies
- now states have fixed boundaries unlike before
What is nation-building?
Developing feeling of loyalty to the state among randomly associated citizens
- many new countries face this problem
What is Colonialism?
Effort by a country to establish settlements and impose political, economic, and cultural principles on a territory.
What is imperialism?
Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society.
- refers to European colonization of Africa and Asia
the 3 G's?
God, Gold, and Glory!
Where are some colonies that remain today?
- islands in the Pacific and the Caribbean
- ex. Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
- commonwealth of USA; most populous colony
- acquired through Treaty of Paris in 1898
- 4 million residents
- country split b/w those who WANT the island to become state of US vs. those who DON'T WANT it to
Shapes of States
- physical shape of state is part of its unique identity
- can influence the ease or difficulty of internal administration
- can affect social unity
- can affect the potential for communication and conflict w/ neighbors
5 basic shapes of states?
- Compact
- Elongated
- Prorupted
- Fragmented
- Perforated
Compact Shape?
- the distance from the center to any boundary doesn't vary significantly; communication is easier for each part of the region
- ideal thoeretical compact state would be shaped like a circle with the capital in the center
- Kenya, Uganda, Belgium, Hungary
Prorupted State?
- A compact state with projecting extension
- created to provide access to a resource (water); divide an area
- Democratic Republic of the Congo, Thailand
Elongated Shape?
- long, narrow shape
- Chile, Gambia, Vietnam
Fragmented Shape?
- includes several discontinued pieces of territory
- all states have offshore islands as part of their territory
- separated by water or land
- Angola, Indonesia, Philippines
Perforated Shape?
- A state that completely surrounds another state
- South Africa (Lesotho & Swaziland), & Italy (Vatican City & San Merino)
What's a boundary?
An invisible line marking the extent of a states territory.
- Physical & cultural features
Physical Boundary
- the Andes Mountains b/w Chile and Argentina
- good bc they're permanent & difficult to cross
- countries almost fought over line
Cultural Boundary
- The Sahara desert
- separates Algeria, Libya, & Egypt in the N from Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Chad, & the Sudan in the S.
Positional Boundary Dispute
- occurs when states disagree about the interpretation of documents that define a boundary, or the way it was drawn; arises w/ boundaries that are created b4 well populated
- ex. Chile & Argentina
Territorial Boundary Dispute
- Disagreement over ownership of a region; arises w/ superimposed boundaries that divide ethnically homogenous populations
- Ex. Somalia & Ethiopia
Resource Boundary Dispute
- neighboring states covet resources lying in border areas & disagree over their use
- ex. Mexico & US w/ CO River and Gulf of Mexico
Functional Boundary Dispute
- neighboring states disagree over policies applied along a boundary line
- ex. US relations w/ Mexico affected by drug trafficking & illegal immigrants
What's a unitary state?
Places most power in the hands of central government officials
What's a federal state?
Allocates most power to units of local government w/ the country
Facts a/b Unitary state
- works best w/ nation-states w/ few internal cultural differences & strong national unity
- small nations are more likely to adopt this type of government
- most commonly found in Euro
- Ex. Kenya, Rwanda
Facts a/b Federal state
- allow local govs. to possess more authority to adopt their own laws; works well w/ large states
- ex. Russia, US, Canada, Brazil
What is gerrymandering?
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
What is electoral geography?
the analysis of the methods, behavior, and results of elections in the context of geographic space and using geographical techniques.
How does gerrymandering work?
- a community has 125 votes allocated among 5 districts of 25 votes each
- Rep.=65 supporters (52%)
- Dem.=60 supporters (48%)
3 forms of gerrymandering
wasted, excess,& stacked votes
the Wasted Vote
- spreads opposition supporters across many districts but ALWAYS in the minority
- wins by having slightly more voters in each district
the Excess Vote
- concentrates opposition supporters into a few districts
- wins by having slightly more voters in 4 of the 5 districts
the Stacked Vote
- links distant areas of like-minded voters through oddly shaped boundaries
- most recent gerrymandering in the US has been this
- wins by being the majority party in 3/4 districts
Who were the 2 superpowers during the Cold War?
the USA and the Soviet Union, roughly equal in power
What is the UN?
It's a global political agency that tries to be universal in promoting peace through its 40 programs
- grew from 51 member states in 1945 to 192 by 2006
When was the UN founded?
October 1945 after WWII
- recognizes 6 official languages
6 official languages of UN
Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Facts about the UN
- name coined by FDR in 1942
- once called League of Nations
- Pres. = Ali Treki
- Sec.-General = Ban Ki-Moon
- can't create/enforce world laws
- no authority over military forces of individual countries
What is terrorism?
Systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a gov. into granting its demands
What was NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)?
N Atlantic Treaty Organization
- consisted of the USA, 14 western Euro. allies, & Canada
- sharply reduced # of troops
- expanded membership to include those in former Warsaw pact rather then disband
What was the Warsaw Pact?
consisted of the Soviet Union and 6 eastern Euro. allies
- disbanded due to lack of military confrontation
What affect did NATO have on Europe?
- By including the Warsaw Pact, the alliance offered Eastern Euro security from future threats from Russia
What is the European Union?
- contains 27 countries
- is Western Euros. most important economic organization
- most barriers to free trade were removed with a few exceptions
- goods, services, capital,people can move freely through Europe
What is the HDI (Human Development Index)?
- measures a countries level of development
- created by the UN in 1990
- 3 factors: economic, social, demographic
What is development?
process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
What is the HDI economic factor?
gross domestic product (GDP) per capita
What is the HDI social factor?
literacy rate and amount of education
What is the HDI demographic factor?
life expectancy
What is GDI?
- reflects improvements in the standard of living and well-being of women
- uses the same factors of development as HDI, but is adjusted to reflect differences in the accomplishments and conditions b/w men and women
Factors of Gender Development Index
- average income of women is lower than men in every country in the world
- female university students outnumber males in MDCs, but less in LDCs
What is the GEM (Gender Empowerment Measure)?
- measures the ability of women to participate in the process of achieving those improvements
- calculated by combining: economic indicators & political power indicators
What are economic indicators?
- Per Capita Income
- Economic Structure
- Productivity
- Consumer Goods
Per Capita Income
- Gross domestic product
- Average incomes are higher in MDCs than LDCs
- if you divide the country's GDP by total pop., it shows you what the average person contributes toward generating the country's wealth
- USA GDP ($14 trillion)/ (300 million) Population
- GDP per capita = $46,000
Economic Structure
- Jobs fall into 3 categories: primary (agriculture), secondary (manufacturing), tertiary (services)
- a low % or primary-sector works tells us a few farmers produce enough food for the rest of the society
- people can increase nat. wealth by working in secondary and tertiary sectors
Productivity
- Value of a product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it; measured by "value added" per worker
-Workers in MDCs produce more w/ less effort bc of access to equipment that does most work
What is value added?
Gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy.
What is the gross domestic product?
Value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country during a year.
Consumer Goods
- Part of the $ generated in MDCs used to buy goods & services; esp. transportation & communication
Social Indicators
Bc MDCs have more $ to spend on schooling, more people can read & write
- the Quantity of edu. is measured by the average # of school years attended
- the Quality of edu. is measured by student/teacher ratio & literacy rate
Life Expectancy - Key Demographic Differences
Babies born today can expect to love into their 70s in MDCs and 60 in LDCs
Infant Mortality - Key Demographic Differences
Greater in LDCs bc of malnutrition or lack of medicine to survive illness
- some die from poor medical practices from lack of edu.
Natural Increase - Key Demographic Differences
- strains country's ability to provide hospitals,schools, jobs, etc.
- many LDCs have to spend their GDP to care for the expanding pop. rather than improve care for the current pop.
Per Capita Income
- Average incomes are higher in MDCs than LDCs
- if you divide the country's GDP by total pop., it shows you what the average person contributes toward generating the country's wealth
- USA GDP ($14 trillion)/ (300 million) Population
- GDP per capita = $46,000
Economic Structure
- Jobs fall into 3 categories: primary (agriculture), secondary (manufacturing), tertiary (services)
- a low % or primary-sector works tells us a few farmers produce enough food for the rest of the society
- people can increase nat. wealth by working in secondary and tertiary sectors
Productivity
- Value of a product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it; measured by "value added" per worker
-Workers in MDCs produce more w/ less effort bc of access to equipment that does most work
What is added value?
Gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy.
What is the gross domestic product?
Value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country during a year.
Consumer Goods
- Part of the $ generated in MDCs used to buy goods & services; esp. transportation & communication
Social Indicators
- Education & literacy
-Bc MDCs have more $ to spend on schooling, more people can read & write
- the Quantity of edu. is measured by the average # of school years attended
- the Quality of edu. is measured by student/teacher ratio & literacy rate
Life Expectancy - Key Demographic Differences
Babies born today can expect to love into their 70s in MDCs and 60 in LDCs
Infant Mortality - Key Demographic Differences
Greater in LDCs bc of malnutrition or lack of medicine to survive illness
- some die from poor medical practices from lack of edu.
Natural Increase - Key Demographic Differences
Greater natural increase strains country's ability to provide hospitals, schools, jobs, etc.
- many LDCs have to spend their GDP to care for the expanding pop. rather than improve care for the current pop.
Crude Birth Rate - Key Demographic Differences
LDCs have higher CBRs, but women in MDCs have fewer babies for various reasons
Health Indicators
- Nutrition
- People tend to be healthier in MDCs because the wealth generated can be used to obtain food and health care
Nutrition - Health Indicators
Food, the essential universal consumption necessity and the objective of the majority of human productive activity, is the ultimate indicator of economic well-being
- 14% of worlds population is undernourished
Health Care - Health Indicators
Total expenditures on health for MDCs exceed 8% of the GDP compared to less than 6% in LDCs
- public service available at little or no cost in most MDCs
Crude Birth Rate - Key Demographic Differences
LDCs have higher CBRs, but women in MDCs have fewer babies for various reasons
Health Indicators
- Nutrition
- People tend to be healthier in MDCs because the wealth generated can be used to obtain food and health care
Nutrition - Health Indicators
Food, the essential universal consumption necessity and the objective of the majority of human productive activity, is the ultimate indicator of economic well-being
- 14% of worlds population is undernourished
Health Care - Health Indicators
Total expenditures on health for MDCs exceed 8% of the GDP compared to less than 6% in LDCs
- public service available at little or no cost in most MDCs
Two Paths of Development
Self-Sufficiency & International Trade
Self-Suffiency
- Raises barriers to trade
- idea of balanced growth and was the most popular development model during the 20th century
- W/ this approach: investment is spread equally across all sectors of a country's economy and in all regions; and dev. can be slow, but residents and enterprises share benefits of development making it fair
Crude Birth Rate - Key Demographic Differences
Higher # in LDCs, but women in MDCs have fewer babies for various reasons
Health Indicators
- Nutrition
- People tend to be healthier in MDCs because the wealth generated can be used to obtain food and health care
Nutrition - Health Indicators
Food, the essential universal consumption necessity and the objective of the majority of human productive activity, is the ultimate indicator of economic well-being
- 14% of worlds population is undernourished
Health Care - Health Indicators
Total expenditures on health for MDCs exceed 8% of the GDP compared to less than 6% in LDCs
- public service available at little or no cost in most MDCs
Two Paths of Development
Self-Sufficiency & International Trade
Self-Suffiency
- Raises barriers to trade
- Idea of balanced growth and was the most popular development model during the 20th century
- W/ this approach: investment is spread equally across all sectors of a country's economy and in all regions; and dev. can be slow, but residents and enterprises share benefits of development making it fair
International Trade
- Distributes scarce resources to a few activities
2 Problems with Self-Sufficiency
- Protected inefficient industries
1) Businesses could sell everything they made at high government controlled prices to customers selected from long waiting lists- There was little incentive to improve quality, lower production costs, reduce prices, etc.- They didn’t keep up with technological changes elsewhere
- 2) Large bureaucracy was needed to administer the controls
Rostows 5 step process
This model works by concentrating scarce resources on expansion of its distinctive local industries
- 5 stages: Traditional Society, Preconditions for takeoff, Takeoff, Drive to maturity, Age of mass consumption
What is step 1 of Rostows Process?
TRADITIONAL SOCIETY: Agriculture would have a very high % of people engaged in it, and high % of wealth allocated to activities like military and religion (non-productive)
step 2 of Rostows Process? PRECONDITIONS FOR TAKEOFF
Elite group of educated leaders starts investment n technology and infrastructure (water, transportation)
step 3 of Rostows Process? TAKEOFF
Rapid growth generated in limited #s of economic activities like textiles and food products
step 4 of Rostows Process? DRIVE TO MATURITY
Modern technology diffuses to a wide variety of industries.
step 5 of Rostows Process? AGE OF MASS CONSUMPTION
Economy shifts from production of heavy industry (steel, energy) to consumer goods (cars, refrigerators)