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137 Cards in this Set

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Cardiovascular Risk Factors
High Serum Cholesterol
High Blood Pressure
Physical Inactivity
Smoking
Obesity
Stress
Age
Cardiovascular:

oxigenated
Arteries- thick, high bp, aorta

Arterioles- thin, regulate flow

AWAY FROM HEART
Cardiovascular:

deoxygenated
Venules- thin

veins- thick, low bp, vena cava

BACK TO HEART
Cardiovascular:

Capilaries
deoxygenated and oxygenated blood

thinnest
gas exchange
branching
one way valves rely on...
muscle contraction
how does oxygen flow through the body?
right atrium > tricuspid valve >
right ventricle > pulmonary valve >
lungs > pulmonary circulation> oxygenation** >
left atrium > bicuspid (mitral) valve >
left ventricle > aortic (semilunar) valve > body > systematic circulation > cappilaries > deoxygenation** > right atrium (etc..)
systole?
blood pressure at contration
Diastole?
blood pressure between heart beats
what is your blood pressure if you have hypertension?
more than 170/ more than 90
what is normal blood pressure?
140 (or below) / 90 (or below)
Systolic / diastolic
what is a blood pressure meter called?
a sphygmomanometer
when are men at high risk for hypertension?

women?
men=
high risk before the age of fiftyfive

women=
GREATER risk after the age of fiftyfive
who's at risk for high blood pressure?
30% of people over sixtyfive

higher risk in african americans

mostly in the morning
what are causes of high blood pressure?
morning time

limited exercise
smoking
genetics
arteriosclorosis
BLOOD PRESSURE MEDICATIONS:
diuretics

blood vessel dilators

beta blockers
BLOOD PRESSURE MEDICATIONS:

diuretics?
most common

eliminate excess fluid and salts
BLOOD PRESSURE MEDICATIONS:

blood vessel dilators?
Adrenergic Inhibitors

ACE inhibitors

Ca antagonists
BLOOD PRESSURE MEDICATIONS:

beta blockers?
slow the heart beat
what are some age related changes for blood pressure?
blood vessel changes= atherosclerosis

decrease in diameter (plaque)
decrease in elasticity
high cholesterol diet, saturated and trans fats
why do blood vessels clog?
oxidized fat deposits in artery
NUMBERS:

cholersterol
higher than, or equal to 200= BAD

less than 200 = desirable
NUMBERS:

tryglicerides
higher than/ equal to 200= HIGH

150- 199 = borderline

lower than 150= desirable
HDL = High Density Lipoprotein
“good” (to liver)
> 35 mg/dl DESIRABLE
LDL = Low Density Lipoprotein
“bad” (away from liver)
< 100 mg/dl DESIRABLE
what are saturated fats?
animal fats

solids
what are unsaturated fats?
plant fats

liquids
what is hydrogenation?
increases a food's "shelf life"
atherosclerosis
hardening of arteries & calcification

high fat diet
physical inactivity
smoking
alcohol

low HDL
High LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides

plaques of lipid, smooth muscle

diet modification MUST be pre-fifty
Ischemic heart disease
12% of women and 20% of men by 65

decreased blood flow
decreased 02 delivery to cardiac muscle

cardiac muscle death
Ischemic heart disease:

thrombus?
blood clot on plaque
Ischemic heart disease:

embolus?
mobile blood clot
CAD TREATMENTS:
body's self correction
balloon angeoplasty
clot buster drugs
stents
coronary bypass
most common stds?
HPV
trichonmiasis
chlamydia
ghonerea
herpes
syphalis
chlamydia
barcteria behaving as viruses

may infect eyes, respritory system

leading cause of infertility

pelvic inflamation

leading cause of pink eye and pnemonia
syphilis
early detection in homosexual men
ghonorrhea
women are asymptomatic
primary bone concern?
brittleness with aging
blood cell formation cite?
bone marrow
osteoclasts/ osteoblasts?
osteoclasts- resorption, rebuilding

osteoblasts- building, ossification
osteoporosis
"porous bone"
increased resorbtion rate
decrease in estrogen
decrease in osteoblast function
osteoporosis prevention
milk
exercise
CA tablets
osteoporosis treatment
estrogen replacement therapy

human growth hormone

exercise

nutrition

hip replacement
arthritis
inflammation of joints...

osteoarthritis
rheumatoid arthritis
gouty arthritis
osteoarthritis
wear and tear

Degeneration of articular cartilage

Bony spur formation

Lower limbs, vertebral fusion
rheumatoid arthritis
inflammation...

Autoimmune- inflammation of synovial membrane

Genetic- most common in post menopausal women

Small joints- hands, feet, wrists, ankles, elbows

NSAIDS
Surgery
gouty arthritis
genetics/ diet

Chronic

Uric acid precipitation

Big Toe, wrist, elbow, knee

high fat diet

excess alcohol
central nervous system
brain/ spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
12 pairs Cranial Nerves

31 pairs Spinal Nerves
cellular composition
Neurons-transmit nerve impulses

Dendrite-receiving

Axon-conduction

Synapse- gap; neurotransmitter
alzheimers
decreased short term memory

confusion

seizures/ speech loss

decreased spatial disorientation

decreased emotional spontanity
parkinson's disease
Anxiety, depression
Muscle rigidity, tremors
Shuffling, monotone, drool, watery eyes

low dopamine levels
strokes
reduced blood flow to brain

neuron deaths

men more than women
black more than white

must control blood pressure
cancer
uncontrolled cell division

mitosis
carcinoma-
skin cancer
leukemia/ lymphoma
blood cells
sarcoma
connective tissue cancer
neuroblastoma
primarily in children

nervous system cancer
CARCINOGEN

MUTAGEN

TUMOR

METASTIS
cancer causing agent

agent that alters DNA

swelling

spreading
risk factors causing cancer
Diet
Infection
Tobacco
Sunlight
Occupation
gene mutation
most common cancers?
lung
large intestine
breast
testicular
bladder
lung cancer
600% increase in women

slow development

not readily detected

metastasis possible
colon cancer risk factors
Age
Diet
Polyps
Heredity
Ulcerative Colitis
colon cancer detection
check stools for blood

sigmoidoscopy

colonoscopy

xrays
breast cancer risk factors
Age (35+)
Diet/Weight
Heredity (BRCA-1,2)
Education/Income
Early/Long Menses
No/Late 1st Pregnancy
breast cancer detection
mamogram
breast cancer treatment
Lumpectomy
Mastectomy
Radiation
Tamoxifen (anti-estrogen)
Herceptin-MAb
prostate cancer
increase african americans

problems with urination
pancreatic cancer
risks: Age (> 60 yrs)
Diabetes
Smoking
Heredity

no effective treatment
Leukemia-
single cells in blood
acute/chronic
lymphocytic/myelogenous
Vaccinations:
Smallpox
Rabies
Typhoid
Cholera
Plague
Diphtheria
Pertussis
Tetanus
Tuberculosis
Influenza
Yellow fever
Poliomyelitis
Measles
Mumps
Rubella
Anthrax
Meningitis
Pneumonia
Adenovirus
Hepatitis B
Hib
Encephalitis
Hepatitis A
Varicella
Lyme disease
Rotavirus
Smallpox
royal experiment
pasture vs kochs
LOOK UP
VIRUS vS VACCINE CELLS
B cells = plasma cells- make Ab
humoral immunity

Th cell, CTL- help, kill
cell mediated immunity
WHOLE ORGANISM VACCINES:

INACTIVATED
killed

multiple boosters

no reversion
WHOLE ORGANISM VACCINES:

ATTENUATED
live
single booster

chickenpox
CLINICAL TRIALS IN HUMANS:

3 phases
Phase I - primarily examines the safety of a drug on up to 100 “healthy” human volunteers
Time: 1 year

Phase II - testing the drug for efficacy in 100 to 300 patient volunteers
Time: 2 years

Phase III - testing the drug in approx. 1000 to 3000 patient volunteers
Time: 3 years


FDA REPORT
small molecule drugs
oral
biological
injection/ IV
what does facs stand for?
facs stands for: Flourecent activated cell sorter
Leeuwenhoek
father of microbiology
wee beastie
1st microscope made in 1600s
mendel
introduced inheritance
worked with pea plants
[genetics]
1st genetic disease in

CAUCASIONS

AFRICAN AMERICANS
CYSTIC FIBROSIS

SICKLE CELL ANEMIA [CARRIERS ARE IMMUNE TO MALERIA]
CYSTIC FIBROSIS
MUCUS BUILDS UP IN LUNGS AND BLOCKS AIRWAYS
DARWIN-
presented idea of evolution
galapogus island-
finches, diff in beaks
PHYLOGENETIC TREE
HUXLEY-
darwin’s bulldog
promoted darwin's ideas
ROBERT KOCH
found chlorae and tuburculosis
Koch's postulates are:
The organism must be found in all animals suffering from the disease, but not in healthy animals. The organism must be isolated from a diseased animal and grown in pure culture The cultured organism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy animal. The organism must be reisolated from the experimentally infected animal.
PASTEUR
created vaccine for rabies
created germ theory of disease >> that all diseases are caused by a microrganism
EDWARD JENNER
CREATED SMALL POX [COW POX] VACCINE
VACCA= COW
WATSON AND
CO-DISCOVERED THE STRUCTURE OF DNA
GENOME=

PROTEOME=

NSF=

NIH=

HHMI=
GENOME= ALL GENES

PROTEOME= ALL PROTIENS

NSF= NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION

NIH= NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH

HHMI= HOWARD HUGHES MEDICAL INSTITUTE
ULCERS?
STOMACHE WALL BREAKS/ BLEEDS
DUE TO STRESS/ ANXIETY
PROKARYOTIC
no cell neucleous
eukaryotic
complex cells with a nucleus
complex cells [eukaryotes]
multicellularity >
tissues >
organs/ systems >
animals
simple cells [prokarotes]
elements
molecules
biochemical elements [chnops]
basic parts found in all cell types
-ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
-GOLGI APPARATUS
-RIBOSOMES
-LYSOSOME
-CENTRIOLES
-CYTOSKELETON
-CILIA FLAGELLA
-ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM = MEMBRANE PRODUCTIVITY
-GOLGI APPARATUS= PROTIEN PROCESSING
-RIBOSOMES= PROTIEN PRODUCTION
-LYSOSOME= STOMACH
-CENTRIOLES= MITOSIS
-CYTOSKELETON= FRAME WORK
-CILIA FLAGELLA= MOTILITY
MITOCHONDRIA=
"POWER PLANTS" ATP PRODUCTION [ADENSONINE TRIPHOSPHATE]

ENERGY AND MOTABOLISM MATERNAL INHERITANCE
VIRUSES
not cells
need cells to replicate [obligate parasite]
VIRAL DISEASES
-progeria= premature aging
-down syndrome= copies of 21st chromosome
amenocentesis -cri du chat syndrome severe retardation deletion of 5th chromosome malformed larynx
karyotype=
standardized map of chromosome pairs
CHROMOSOMES CONTAIN GENES
genotype= individual's genes
alleles= alternate form of same genes
phenotype= physical appearence
E= dominant
EE, Ee = unattatched earlobe
e= recessive
ee= attathed earlobe
genes=
dna=
base pairs=
genes= made of dna
dna= made of nucleotide momoers
base pairs= adenine and thymine
guanine and cytosine
CYSTIC FIBROSIS
most common lethal genetic disease for caucations
1/20 carriers
1/2500 afflicted
mucus in lungs that blocks airways
sex linked:
sex linked:
color blindness
hemophilia
sex influenced:
sex influenced:
patterend baldness
1 allele men 2 allele women
sickle cell anemia
1 nucleotide change
1 amino acid change
polygenic traits-
skin color [6 genes]
eye color [6 genes]
height [20 genes]
polygenic diseases-
diabetes
schizophrenia
hypertension
# of chromosomes
nucleotide pairs
total genes
proteins
60 chromosomes-
23 nucleotide pairs-
3 billion total
genes 25, 000?
proteins 100,000
replication
helIX UNWOUND EACH STRAND COPIED
DNA repair enzymes
correct 99% of errors repair MUST precede replication
gene cloning
1- isolate plasmid DNA & human DNA
2- cut both w/ same restriction enzyme
3- mix DNAs [by base pairing]
4- introduce DNA to bacterial cells w/ mutation
gene therapy
1- bone marrow cells removed
2- bone marrow cells enriched to isolate parent cells of immune system
3- cells infected with virus
4- cells take up gene
5- cells returned to body
6- immune system builds resistance cystic fibrosis & sickle cell anemia
microbes, germs, and pathogens include...
viruses- a cellular
bacteria - prokaryotic
fungi- eukaryotic
parasites- eukaryotic enzymes
collagenases- gangrene
toxins
enterotoxin- food poisioning
teatnus toxin- lock jaw
endotoxin- samonella [live bacteria]
bacteria
most successful organism
most harmless not visable
treated with antibiotics
tuburculosis [white plague 1.7 billion deaths]
lymes disease [deer tick]
diareal [chlorea, typhoid, dysentery]
bacteria formation
cell wall
nucleoid
morphology
spirals, rods, cocci
viruses
obligate intercellular parasites
RNA- AIDS, mumps, maleria, influenza
DNA- herpes simplex, hepatitis B, chicken pox
prevent via vaccinations
virus life cycle
1) absorbtion
2)reverse transcription
3,4) vDNA integrations
5) vRNA production
6,7) virus release
HAV-

HBV-

HCV-
HAV- vaccine
acute
jaundice [yellow skin]

HBV- vaccine
5% chronic
cancer

HCV- no vaccine
50% chronic
treat with ifn
Viral Diseases????
epstein barr- mono
varicella zoster - chicken pox
herpes simplex 1 - oral
herpes simplex 2 - genital
cytomegalvirus- rabies
rabies-
rhabdovirus
transmitted via saliva > brain
induces biting
foaming
insanity
rhinoviruses-
common cold
temp sensitive- 32 degrees
95% infection rate
75% become ill
Influenza-
constant mutations
new vaccine per yr
avian bird flu 160 infected 80 dead
fungi-
yeast, mold, mushrooms
multicellular eukaryotic
ringworm,
yeast infection,
athletes foot,
jock itch
parasites/ protozoa
eukaryotic unicellular
cysts
amoebic dysentary
malaria
via mosquito
protien infections
bovine spongiform- mad cows disease
doesnt go away when cooked
creutzfeld jacobs disease- deteriates brain
107 deaths in britian
organelles-
"little organs"
eukaryotic
cell wall=
penicillin target
what is flow cytometry
the process of counting and examining cells
CHRONIC
RE-OCCURING

LYMES DISEASE, CANCER, HEART DISEASE
ACUTE
short lived
ORPHAN
RARE

RIFT VALLEY DISEASE
3 basic parts to all cells
plasma membrane
cytoplasm
nucleus
xeroderma pigmentation
caused by mutation in DNA repair gene