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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
____ is often referred to as the present key to the past
Uniformitarianism
Which one the following clays is produced from chemical weathering?
Dissolved ions and clays.
The ___ ion at the center of a silicate tetrahedron is surrounded by four
Si, O
What are vesicles?
Open spaces formed in the rock as the lava solidified around gas bubbles
The ___ forms the relatively cool, brittle plates of plate tectonics.
Mesophere
Decompression melting is the cause for magmas erupting in volcanoes at this location:
Iceland
Which scientific law is most useful for relative age dating of strata?
Fossil succession
What is the most important role in physical weathering?
Increaseed surface area.
Which is most likely to increase the explosive potential of a magma body beneath a volcano?
High viscosity, high dissolved gas content.
What is used for studying rocks with a polarizing microscope?
thin sections
Which mineral would you least likely find in a mature sandstone
augite
A cherty limestone would contain which major constituents?
silica, calcite
In the rock cycle, an igneous rock can subsequently be
any combination
Clastic sedimentary rocks are named on what basis?
grain sizes of the detrital particles
Why is yellowstone such a dangerous volcano?
Super calderas have enormous explosive potential
Flint, chert and jasper are microcrystalline minerals with a formula of
SiO2
You're examining a rock with two predominant mineral grains easily visible to the unaided eye; they're of similar size. You see visible quartz and also a mineral whose chemical composition is determined to be KAlSi3O8, The best name for this rock is:
Granite
What is the primary factor producting textural maturity of a clastic sedimentary rock?
Transport distance
A snowflake is a mineral
True
The active Hawaiian volcanoes are sitauated directly above a major boundary between two of the Earth's largest tectonic plates.
False.
Calcite and dolomite are dimorphic
False
Olivine and pyroxene that crystallize at high temperatures are generally much less susceptible to chemical weathering at the earth's surface than quartz.
False
Mud cracks in a shale or mudstone indicate the the mud or clay was deposited in deep waters of an offshore marine environment.
False
Viscosities of magmas increase with increasing percentages of silica.
True
Plutonic rocks are intrusive and generally consist of mineral grains coarse enough to be readily visible in a hand sample.
true
Flint, chert and jasper are microcrystalline minerals with a formula of
SiO2
You're examining a rock with two predominant mineral grains easily visible to the unaided eye; they're of similar size. You see visible quartz and also a mineral whose chemical composition is determined to be KAlSi3O8, The best name for this rock is:
Granite
What is the primary factor producting textural maturity of a clastic sedimentary rock?
Transport distance
A snowflake is a mineral
True
The active Hawaiian volcanoes are sitauated directly above a major boundary between two of the Earth's largest tectonic plates.
False.
Calcite and dolomite are dimorphic
False
Olivine and pyroxene that crystallize at high temperatures are generally much less susceptible to chemical weathering at the earth's surface than quartz.
False
Mud cracks in a shale or mudstone indicate the the mud or clay was deposited in deep waters of an offshore marine environment.
False
Viscosities of magmas increase with increasing percentages of silica.
True
Plutonic rocks are intrusive and generally consist of mineral grains coarse enough to be readily visible in a hand sample.
true
Flint, chert and jasper are microcrystalline minerals with a formula of
SiO2
You're examining a rock with two predominant mineral grains easily visible to the unaided eye; they're of similar size. You see visible quartz and also a mineral whose chemical composition is determined to be KAlSi3O8, The best name for this rock is:
Granite
What is the primary factor producting textural maturity of a clastic sedimentary rock?
Transport distance
A snowflake is a mineral
True
The active Hawaiian volcanoes are sitauated directly above a major boundary between two of the Earth's largest tectonic plates.
False.
Calcite and dolomite are dimorphic
False
Olivine and pyroxene that crystallize at high temperatures are generally much less susceptible to chemical weathering at the earth's surface than quartz.
False
Mud cracks in a shale or mudstone indicate the the mud or clay was deposited in deep waters of an offshore marine environment.
False
Viscosities of magmas increase with increasing percentages of silica.
True
Plutonic rocks are intrusive and generally consist of mineral grains coarse enough to be readily visible in a hand sample.
true
What are the three principle types of lithospheric plate bounaries.
Convergent, divergent, transform
Name 7 of the 8 most important igneous rock forming silicate minerals
plagioscape feldspar, muscovite mica, biotite mica, orthoclase feldspar, quartz, olivine, plagioclase feldspar
Seven of 8 most important elements found in igneous rock forming silicate materials
Si, Mg, Na, Ca, K, Al, Fe
Three most important sedimentary rock forming non-silicate minerals
Calcite, Dolomite, Gypsum
The physical property denoting a minerals tendancy to split along parallel, planar surfaces is known as what?
cleavage
What term describes the larger mineral grains in porphyritic igneous rock
phenocrysts
Igneous rocks are classified on the basis of which two main characteristics
Composition, texture