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64 Cards in this Set

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What is the treatment and nuring care for inflammation
Rest and elevate the part, cold application, heat application, diet, anti-inflam agents, control pain
How dose rest and elevation help w/ inflammation
decrease swelling adn increase venouse return and derease amount tissue that is damaged
How dose cold application help w/ inflammaiton
vasoconstriction decreases swelling and pain
What kind of diet does the pt. require with inflammation
increase of fluids, 3-4,000mL/24hrs
What kind of anti-inflammatory agents are used with a pt. w/ inflammation and why
NSAIDS (ASA, ibuprofen)
because they decrease inflammation and swelling
What are the different types of infections
nosocomial, community acquired
Nosocaomial infection
hospical acquired
-UTI, Repiratory, wound infections
communicable (community acquired)
acquired via day to day public
What are the S&S of systemic infection
H/A, dry skin, flushed face, swollen, tender lymph nodes, malaise, fatigue, body ache, fever and chills, tachycardia and RR, leukocytosis
What is the treatment and nursing care for infections
Rest, fever reduction, monitor V.S, Diet, lsolation, medications
How dose a nurse promote rest for a pt. with an infection
quiet environment, back rub, psition changes, psychosocial support
How dose a nurse promote rever reduction for a pt. with an infection
Cool environment, pull down bed covers
What kind of diet is needed for a pt. with an infection
Increase fluids to 3-4,000mL/24hr, increase calories, and possable supplements
How dose a nurse use isolation for a pt. with an infection
universal precautions with all pt., wear gloves, goggles, mask, gowns, and dispose waste properly.. GOOD HANDWASHING
What kind of medications are needed for a pt. with an infection
Antibiotics, fever reducer
What are the nursing implications for a pt. taking an antibiotic
obtain a C&S, admin on time, satch for allergies, asses response and effectiveness, watch for superinfections, FF
What is pneumonia
inflammation of the alveoli
What are the S&S of pnumonia
Chills and fever (103-106)
cyanosis, tachycardia, dyspnea/thachypnea
productive cough, pain, weak, malaise
How is pneumonia Dx
WBC increase 15-40,000/mL, Blood cultures, and X-rays
What is the treatment for pneumonia
Antibiotic, supportive care, O2 therapy, diet, rest, mild analgesic
What is supprtive care for a pt. with pneumonia
heated and medicated nebulization, postural drainage and percussion
What kind of diet should a pt. with pneumonia have
With lots of fluids

3,000 mL/day
What is arthritis
inflammation of the joints, with no cure
What is Rheumatoid arthritis
Chronic systemic disease where there is inflammation in the synovial membrane, swelling, reduced movement with calcium deposits
What are the S&S of Rheumatoid arthritis
muscle aches, fever, malaise, inflamed, swollen, red hot joints, stiffness in the morning
What is the treatment for Rheumatoid arthritis
Supportive:
balance of rest/activities, maintain mobility, pain control and medications
What are the they types of surgeries for Rheumatoid Arthritis
synovectomy- removal of hypertophied synovium

Arthroplasty- Reconsruct joint

Total Joint Arthoplasty
What are the ways to control pain for a pt. with Rheumatoid arthritis
Whirlpool, hot tub, heat packs
What are some medications for a pt. with Rheumatoid arthritis
salicylates, ibuprofen, cox-2 inhibitors and steroids
What is osteoarthritis
noninflammatory degernation of cartilage and bone, progressive waring out of a joint, erosion of articular cartilage, osterophyte (bone spurs)
What are the contributing factors for the development of osteoarthritis
poor posture, trauma; or strain on joints, obesity
What are the S&S of osteoarthritis
stiffness in the A.M., increase pain w/exercise, limitaion of movement, joint enlargement
What are the nursing implications and treatment for osteoarthritis
Encourage ADL's, short peroids of moderate exercise, weight loss, heat, massage, T.J replacement
What is shock
When tissues are have a decreas perfusion of O2, caused by peripheral/circulatory failure
What are some of GI effects from shock
increase risk for ulcers, impaired mobility, decrease liver function
What are some of the renal effects from shock
decrease renal perfusion, nubular necrosis
What are the brain effects caused from shock
neurological impact, cerebral hypoxia, ischemia swelling, decreased in LOC
hypovolemic shock
reduction of circulatain volume, because of hemorrhage or fluid loss/dehydration
Cardiogenic Shock
The heart fails to pump adequate amount of blood, CHF, or MI
Vasogenic Shock
Loss of sympathetic vessel tone; sudden vasodilation, blood collects in small vessels
Neural induced vasogenic shock
injury to brain/spinal cord where brain cant tell send message to vasoconstrict
Chemical induced septic shock
Septic/bacteremia because of overwhelming bacterial infections cause vasodialation
Chemical induced anaphylactic shock
Severe allergic reaction with large amounts of histimine that cause massive vasodilation
What are the S&S of Shock
Color, Skin, Vital signs, kidneys, thirst, sensory
What happens to color and skin of pt. with S&S of shock
The pt. becomes pale, dusky skin, cyanotic lips and nailbeds
What happens to the vial signs of a pt. in shock
Decrease of B/P, Increase of P and RR
What happens to a pt. sensory when in shock
***first sign of shock***
Restliss, irritable, confused, decreased LOC
What is the treatment for a pt. thats in shock
Replacement therapy:
V.S, O2, IV fluid, warmth, medicaitons to vasoconstrict
What are the risk factors for TB
Homeless, malnutrition, immuno-compromised
What are the S&S of TB
Productive cough w/blood, low grade fever, fatigue, anorexia and weight loss, SOB, chest pain and dyspnea
How is TB DX
skin test, C&S, X-ray
What is the treatment for TB
Drugs:
INH, rifampin, pyrazinamide, streptomycin
What is the nursing care and for TB
Supportive, teaching about longterm therapy and complience **Isolation***
What are the COPD's
Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema, Asthma
What is the S&S of Chronic Bronchitis
Excessive mucose production, crackles and wheezes, polycythemia, edema
What are the S&S of emphysemia
dyspnea, weakness, lethargy, fatigue, barrel chest, chronic, nonproductive cough
What is the treatment for emphysemia
Avoid irritants, stop smoking, avoid cold air, nebulizer, humidification, O2, medicaitons- clucocorticoids, bronchodilatiors, expectorents
What are the S&S of Asthma
paroxysmal wheezing, tightness of chest, hypoxia, cyanosis, cough
What is the treatment or nursing for asthma
Medications- Bronchodilatiors, glucocorticoids, antibiotics, O2, liquefy secretions
What is the subjective data a nurse should check when assessing pain
Nature, intensity, location, onset, and duration of pain
What are the physical responses to pain
increase or decrease in B/P, increase of P and RR, Cool, pale skin, N/V, weak, dilated puplis, pt. look like they are in pain, restless
What are some nonpharmacologic ways to manage pain
self control, distaction, telaxation, superficial stimulation, acupressure, biofeedback, TENS, Surgical procedure
What are some pharmocologic mangagment for pain
Narcotics or non-narcotics
What is the seven steps in pain assessment
Accept patients report, determine the status of pain, describe pain, examine the site, identify coping methods, record assessment and interventions, evaluate success of interventions