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12 Cards in this Set

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What is a retroverted uterus? What is its prevalence?
It is a uterus that is bending and tilted backwards. Occurs in 10% of women.
What is the anatomic orientation of the pelvis?
The pelvis lies on a downward inclination with the upper margin of the pubic symphysis and the anterior superior iliac spines lying in the same vertical plane.
How do the sacral vertebrae articulate with each other?
The 5 sacral vertebrae do not articulate with each other, but are fused to form the sacrum.
What are the structures through which a sperm will pass on its route from the testis to its exit from the spongy urethra?
The sperm has to travel through the following strctures:
The sperm is stored in the epididymis. After its release, it travels in the vas deferens to enter the
abdominal cavity through the deep inguinal ring. It then reaches the prostate in the pelvic cavity. In the prostate it is mixed with the fluids from the seminal vesicles and the prostate. It then travels through the prostatic urethra, membranous urethra and lastly the spongy urethra.
What part of urethra passes through the corpus spongiosum?
Penile or spongy urethra.
What is the action of bulbospongiosus muscle?
Bulbospongiosus empties the urine/semen at the end of the micturition/ejaculation in the male. In
the female it acts as a sphincter for the vagina.
What are the structures that support uterus?
The uterus is mainly supported by (1) tone of the levator ani muscle and (2) the condensation of pelvic fascia, known as ligaments. There are 3 important ligament and they extend from cervix and vaginal vault to the lateral walls of the pelvis. These are: cardinal (lateral) ligaments, pubocervical ligaments and uterosacral ligaments (one on either side).
What is the importance of rectouterine pouch (of Douglas)?
Under pathological conditions, a digital vaginal examination may help to diagnose any enlargement or displacement of broad ligament, enlargement of ovaries and uterine tubes (inflammation, tumors, cysts, ectopic pregnancy, etc.) through the pouch of Douglas. A physician, by incising the pouch of Douglas, one can drain a pelvic abscess through the vagina without performing a major surgery.
What is the course of the pudendal nerve? What is a pudendal block?
The pudendal nerve (S2,3,4) exits from the pelvic cavity through the greater sciatic foramen. After a short course in the gluteal region, it enters the perineum through lesser sciatic foramen, passes through the pudendal canal in the ischiorectal fossa and gives its terminal branches. These branches supply the external anal sphincter and the muscles and skin of the perineum. The area of perineum can be anesthetized by blocking the nerve with an anesthetic (“pudendal block”).
What is the relationship of urethral opening with the vaginal orifice?
The urethral opening lies anterior to the vaginal orifice.
What nerves supply the perineum?
The following nerves supply the area of perineum:
i) pudendal nerve and its branches
ii) ilioinguinal nerve
iii) genital branch of genitofemoral nerve
iv) pelvic autonomic plexuses
What are the contents of the pudendal canal and demonstrate the position of
pudendal canal and course of the pudendal nerve on the bony pelvis to your group?
Pudendal canal contains the pudendal nerve, internal pudendal artery and vein.