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94 Cards in this Set

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appendicular skeleton
bones of the upper and lower limbs plus pectoral and shoulder girdles
axial skeleton
bones of the head, neck, and trunk
tuberosity
large rounded projection, often roughened
crest
narrow ridge of bone; usually prominent
trochanter
very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process (only found on the femur)
line
narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest
tubercle
small rounded projection or process
epicondyle
raised area on or above a condyle
spine
sharp, slender, often pointed projection
process
any bony prominence
head
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
facet
smoothe, nearly flat articular surface
condyle
rounded articular projection
ramus
arm-like bar of bone
meatus
canal-like passageway
sinus
cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
fossa
shallow basin-like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
groove
furrow
fissure
narrow, slit-like opening
foramen
round or oval opening through a bone
ligaments
connect bones, reinforce most joints
cranial bones
enclose and protect brain, provide attachment sites for some head and neck muscles

also known as cranium
cranium
encloses and protects brain, provides attachment sites for some head and neck muscles

also known as cranial bones
sutures
immovable joints between bones
coronal suture
suture where parietal bones meet frontal bone anteriorly
sagittal suture
suture where right and left sagittal bones meet superiorly in the midline of the cranium
squamous suture
suture where a parietal bone meets a temporal bone inferiorly
lambdoid suture
suture where parietal bones meet occipital bone posteriorly; named for its resemblance to the Greek letter lambda L
cranial vault
comprised of the superior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the skull plus the forehead region

also known as calvaria
calvaria
comprised of the superior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the skull plus the forehead region

also known as cranial vault
cranial base
inferior part of skull, divided into anterior, middle, and posterior fossae

also known as cranial floor
cranial floor
inferior part of skull, divided into anterior, middle, and posterior fossae

also known as cranial base
cranial cavity
what the brain occupies
orbits
skull cavities that house the eyeballs
middle and inner ear cavities
cavities carved into the lateral aspects of the cranial base
nasal cavity
cavity in and posterior to the nose
paranasal sinuses
air-filled sinuses occurring in several bones around the nasal cavity
cranial nerves
nerves which conduct impulses to and from the brain; there are 12 pairs
eight large bones of the skull
2 temporal bones
2 temporal bones
frontal bone
occipital bone
sphenoid bone
ethmoid bone
frontal bone
bone that forms the forehead and roofs of the orbits
superciliary arches
brow ridges protruding from skull
supraorbital margin
superior margin of the orbit (e.g. where the eyebrow is)
supraorbital foramen
opening that allows the supraorbital artery and nerve through the skull to supply the forehead
glabella
smooth part of the frontal bone between the supraorbital arches
frontonasal suture
suture where the frontal bone meets the nasal bones
frontal sinuses
sinuses contained in the regions of the frontal bone lateral to the glabella
anterior cranial fossa
fossa which holds the large frontal bones of the brain
parietal bones
bones of the skull shaped like curved rectangles, making up the bulk of the cranial vault
sutural bones
small irregular bones that occur within sutures, especially in the lambdoid suture
occipital bone
bone that makes up the posterior part of the cranium and cranial base; forms walls of the posterior cranial fossa
occipitomastoid sutures
sutures where the occipital bone articulates with the temporal bones
posterior cranial fossa
fossa containing the cerebellum
foramen magnum
literally "large hole"; hole in the base of the occipital bone where the inferior part of the brain connects with the spinal cord
occipital condyles
condyles which articulate with the first vertebra of the vertebral column to allow the head to nod
hypoglossal canal
canal that cranial nerve XII runs through; found medial and superior to each occipital condyle
basioccipital
band of bone joining the sphenoid bone to the occipital bone
external occipital protuberance
knob in the midline of the occipital bone, found at the junction of the base and posterior wall of the skull
external occipital crest
crest extending anteriorly from the external occipital protuberance to the foramen magnum
ligamentum nuchae
an elastic, sheet-shaped ligament that lies in the median plane of the posterior neck and connects the neck vertebrae to the skull
superior nuchal lines
lines extending laterally from the occipital protuberance; mark the upper limit of the neck
inferior nuchal lines
lines extending laterally from a point halfway along the occipital crest
temporal bones
bones lying inferior to the parietal bones, forming the inferolateral region of the skull and parts of the cranial floor
four major regions of a temporal bone
squamous region
tympanic region
mastoid region
petrous regions
squamous region
region of temporal bone abutting the squamous suture
zygomatic process
bar-like process projecting anteriorly from the squamous region of the temporal bone to meet the zygomatic bone of the face
zygomatic arch
zygomatic process plus zygomatic arch
mandibular fossa
fossa on the inferior surface of the zygomatic process; part of the temporomandibular joint
temporomandibular joint
jaw joint; formed of mandible plus mandibular fossa
tympanic region
region of temporal bone surrounding the external acoustic meatus
external acoustic meatus
external ear canal; canal through which sound enters the ear

also known as external auditory meatus
external auditory meatus
external ear canal; canal through which sound enters the ear

also known as external acoustic meatus
tympanic membrane
eardrum
styloid process
needle-like process projecting inferiorly from the tympanic region; attachment point for some muscles of the tongue and pharynx and for a ligament that connects the skull to the hyoid bone of the neck
mastoid region
region of temporal bone on which the mastoid process is found
mastoid process
process on the temporal bone found just posterior to the ear; anchoring site for some neck muscles
stylomastoid foramen
foramen located between the styloid and mastoid processes; cranial nerve VII, the facial nerve, leaves the skull through this foramen
mastoid air cells
air-filled sinuses occurring in the mastoid process; these lie just posterior to the middle ear
petrous region
region of temporal bone projecting medially and contributing to the cranial base; looks from within the cranial cavity like a mountain ridge; divides posterior from middle cranial fossae
jugular foramen
large foramen located where the petrous region joins the occipital head; used by largest vein of the head, internal jugular vein, and cranial nerves IX, X, and XI
carotid canal
canal that opens in the petrous region on the skull's inferior aspect just anterior to the jugular foramen; transmits the internal carotid artery (the main artery to the brain) into the cranial cavity
foramen lacerum
jagged opening between the medial tip of the petrous temporal bone and the sphenoid bone
internal acoustic meatus
meatus in the cranial cavity on the posterior face of the petrous region; transmits cranial nerves VII and VIII

also known as internal auditory meatus
internal auditory meatus
meatus in the cranial cavity on the posterior face of the petrous region; transmits cranial nerves VII and VIII

also known as internal acoustic meatus
spenoid bone
bat-shaped bone located posterior to the nose; articulates with nearly every other bone of the skull
parts of the sphenoid bone
greater wings
lesser wings
pterygoid processes
sella turcica
literally "Turkish saddle"; saddle-shaped prominence found on the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid bone
hypophyseal fossa
fossa holding the pituitary gland, or hypophysis; fossa lies in the seat of the sella turcica
sphenoid sinuses
two sinuses found within the sphenoid body
greater wings
processes projecting laterally from the sphenoid body, forming parts of the middle cranial fossa and the orbit
lesser wings
horn-shaped processes projecting laterally from the sphenoid body, forming part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa and the orbit
pterygoid processes
processes projecting inferiorly from the greater wings of the sphenoid bone; attachment sites for the pterygoid muscles that help close the jaw in chewing
optic foramen
foramen lying just anterior to the sella turcica; cranial nerve II passes through it from the orbit into the cranial cavity
important openings of the sphenoid bone
optic foramen
superior orbital fissure
foramen rotundum
foramen ovale
foramen spinosum
superior orbital fissure
long slit between the greater and lesser wings of the sphenoid bone