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161 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomy
the study of the structure of the human body
morphology
the science of form
physiology
the study of body function
functional anatomy
an approach that combines description of the anatomy of a body part with an explanation of its function
gross anatomy
the study of body structures that can be examined by the naked eye
dissection
cutting apart
regional anatomy
examines all structures in a single body region as a group
systemic anatomy
examines all structures with related functions as a group
surface anatomy
the study of shapes and markings ("landmarks") on the surface of the body that reveal the underlying organs
microscopic anatomy
the study of structures so small they can only be seen with a microscope
histology
tissue study
developmental anatomy
tracing the structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life span and the effects of aging
embryology
the study of how body structures form and develop before birth
pathological anatomy
structural changes in cells, tissues, and organs caused by disease
radiographic anatomy
the study of internal body structures by means of X rays and other forms of radiation
functional morphology
the study of the functional properties of body structures and the assessment of the efficiency of their design
hierarchy of structural organization
1) Chemical level = atoms
2) Cellular level = cells & cellular organelles
3) Tissue level
4) Organ level
5) Organ system level
6) Organismal level
metric system
system of measurement used in anatomy
micrometer
1 millionth of a meter, or 1 ten-thousandth of a centimeter

Symbol: μm
milliliter
1 thousandth of a liter

Symbol: mL
anatomical position
position referred to in anatomical terminology: facing forward, standing erect, arms down and slightly out with palms forward
appendicular region
limbs
axial region
head and torso
trunk region
subset of axial region covering the torso
right, left
the right and left of the person or cadaver being viewed
superior
toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above
inferior
away from the head end or toward the lower part of the body; below
anterior
toward or at the front of the body
ventral
toward or at the belly of a vertebrate animal
posterior
toward or at the back of the body
dorsal
toward or at the back of a vertebrate animal
medial
toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
lateral
away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
intermediate
between a more medial and a more lateral structure
proximal
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
distal
farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
superficial
toward or at the body surface (also "external")
external
toward or at the body surface (also "superficial")
deep
away from the body surface; more internal
nasal
nose
oral
mouth
cervical
neck
acromial
point of shoulder
axillary
armpit
abdominal
abdomen
brachial
arm
antecubital
front of elbow
antebrachial
front of forearm
pelvic
pelvis
carpal
wrist
pollex
thumb
palmar
palm
digital
fingers and/or toes
pubic
genital region
patellar
anterior knee
crural
leg
pedal
foot
tarsal
ankle
frontal
forehead
orbital
eye
buccal
cheek
mental
chin
sternal
breastbone
thoracic
chest
mammary
breast
umbilical
navel
coxal
hip
inguinal
groin
femoral
thigh
fibular
side of leg, aka peroneal
peroneal
side of leg, aka fibular
hallux
great toe
cephalic
head
upper extremity
arms
manus
hand
lower extremity
legs
otic
ear
occipital
back of head or base of skull
vertebral
spinal column
scapular
shoulder blade
dorsum or dorsal
back
olecranal
back of elbow
lumbar
loin
sacral
between hips
gluteal
buttock
perineal
region between anus and external genitalia
popliteal
back of knee
sural
calf
calcaneal
heel
plantar
sole
frontal plane
lies vertically, divides the body into anterior and posterior parts; also called a coronal plane
coronal plane
lies vertically, divides the body into anterior and posterior parts; also called a frontal plane
transverse plane
runs horizontally and divides the body into superior and inferior parts; also called a horizontal plane
horizontal plane
runs horizontally and divides the body into superior and inferior parts; also called a transverse plane
cross section
transverse section
sagittal plane
lies vertically and divides the body into right and left parts
midsagittal plane
sagittal plane exactly in the midline
parasagittal plane
any sagittal plane other than the midsagittal plane
oblique section
a section that's not frontal, transverse, or sagittal
section
a cut through the body or an organ along a particular plane; a thin slice of tissue prepared for microscopic study
features of a vertebrate
1) Tuebe-within-a-tube body plan
2) Bilateral symmetry
3) Dorsal hollow nerve cord
4) Notochord and vertebrae
5) Segmentation
6) Pharyngeal pouches
notochord
a stiffening rod in the back just deep to the spinal cord
segments
repeating units of similar structure that run from the head along the full length of the trunk
pharynx
throat region of the digestive tube
dorsal body cavity
subdivided into cranial cavity & vertebral cavity; hard, bony walls protect the contained organs
cranial cavity
lies in the skull and encases the brain
vertebral cavity
runs through the vertebral column to enclose the spinal cord
ventral body cavity
large anterior closed body cavity, containing the visceral organs
visceral organs
lungs, heart, intestines, and kidneys

also called viscera
viscera
lungs, heart, intestines, and kidneys

also called visceral organs
thoracic cavity
superior portion of ventral body cavity
abdominopelvic cavity
inferior portion of ventral body cavity
diaphragm
dome-shaped muscle used in breathing; divides the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
pleural cavity
surrounds a lung
mediastinum
central band of organs in the thoracic cavity (heart, esophagus, trachea)
pericardial cavity
surrounds the heart
abdominal cavity
superior portion of abdominopelvic cavity; contains liver, stomach, kidneys, etc.
pelvic cavity
inferior portion of abdominopelvic cavity; contains bladder, some reproductive organs, and rectum
peritoneal cavity
surrounds many organs in the abdominopelvic cavity
serous
watery
serous membrane
lines a serous cavity; also called a serosa
serosa
lines a serous cavity; also called a serous membrane
pleura
serous membrane that lines the pleural cavity in the thorax and covers the external surface of the lung
pericardium
double-layered sac that encloses the heart and forms its superficial layer
peritoneum
serous membrane that lines the interior of the abdominopelvic cavity and covers the surfaces of the organs in this cavity
parietal serosa
the part of a serosa that forms the outer wall of the cavity
visceral serosa
the part of a serosa on the inside; covers the organs; continuous with the parietal serosa
oral cavity
mouth
nasal cavity
within and posterior to the nose
orbital cavities
house the eyes and present them in an anterior position
middle ear cavities
each lies just medial to an ear drum and are carved into the bone of the skull; contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the inner ears
synovial cavities
joint cavities, enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround the freely movable joints of the body
right hypochondriac region
upper right region of abdominopelvic cavity
epigastric region
upper central region of abdominopelvic cavity
left hypochondriac region
upper left region of abdominopelvic cavity
right lumbar region
central right region of abdominopelvic cavity
umbilical region
central region of abdominopelvic cavity
left lumbar region
central left region of abdominopelvic cavity
right iliac region
lower right region of abdominopelvic cavity; also called right inguinal region
right inguinal region
lower right region of abdominopelvic cavity; also called right iliac region
middle ear cavities
each lies just medial to an ear drum and are carved into the bone of the skull; contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the inner ears
synovial cavities
joint cavities, enclosed within fibrous capsules that surround the freely movable joints of the body
right hypochondriac region
upper right region of abdominopelvic cavity
epigastric region
upper central region of abdominopelvic cavity
left hypochondriac region
upper left region of abdominopelvic cavity
right lumbar region
central right region of abdominopelvic cavity
umbilical region
central region of abdominopelvic cavity
left lumbar region
central left region of abdominopelvic cavity
right iliac region
lower right region of abdominopelvic cavity; also called right inguinal region
right inguinal region
lower right region of abdominopelvic cavity; also called right iliac region
hypogastric region
lower central region of abdominopelvic cavity; also called pubic region
pubic region
lower central region of abdominopelvic cavity; also called hypogastric region
left iliac region
lower left region of abdominopelvic cavity; also called left inguinal region
left inguinal region
lower left region of abdominopelvic cavity; also called left iliac region
ways to describe region within abdominopelvic cavity
nine regions or four quadrants
microscopy
the examination of small structures with a microscope
LM
light microscope
EM or TEM
transmission electron microscope
ultrastructure
the fine details of cells and tissues, as viewed by electron microscopy
computed tomography (CT)
a refined X-ray technology also known as computed axial tomography (CAT)
computed axial tomography (CAT)
a refined X-ray technology also known as computed tomography (CT)