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8 Cards in this Set
To the extent that organizations can capitalize on the potential benefits of cultural diversity, they will gain a competitive advantage. However, it is also clear that cultural diversity in workgroups presents some potential problems in organizations. Discuss the potential benefits and problems.
The business reasons for managing diversity include cost savings (lower turnover/absenteeism, reduction in lawsuits), as well as recruiting benefits (more able to attract and retain top talent). Diversity also provides a measurable competitive advantage in terms of creativity, quality decision making, and product development.
Forces that work against diversity include prejudice (biased views), stereo types (beliefs in which specific behavior traits are ascribed to individuals on the basis of their group membership), discrimination (individual, structural, institutional), and privilege (unearned advantage for certain group members).
On an individual level, research suggests our cultural identity is developed. According to lecture and readings, there are stage models (e.g., Cross’s and Helm’s) that describe how most of us evolve over time. Describe one of these stage models by applying it to your own identify development (choose one of your multiple identities) OR how you have seen others go through the stages.
I’ve seen some of my African American classmates go through the stages of Cross’ model of identity development:
1. Preencounter: Blacks reject Black heritage and define themselves in terms of White culture
2. Encounter: they seek identification with Black culture
3. Immersion/emersion: they have complete identification with Black culture and hostility toward Whites
4. Internalization: they become comfortable with Black identity; anger leaves and racism is transcended
5. Internationalization/commitment: they become behaviorally active in fighting racism
Take one form of difference within U.S. diversity (e.g., age, disabilities, race, gender, religion, sexual orientation) and:
A. describe what you have learned about the impact of stereotyping, prejudice and/or discrimination (define these terms) on this cultural group, and
B. explain what you know about the legal realm for this category of difference
Women are often stereotyped as poor leaders. As a result of male prejudices, women are often discriminated against when it comes to promotions, leading to the glass ceiling effect.
* Right to Vote – 1920
* Equal Pay Act - 1963
* Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
* Title IX – Education Code of 1972
* Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
Differences evoke emotions at different levels, ranging from small or minor to large and major. Discuss the escalating intensity in each level of emotion as differences are encountered.
In order from least to greatest intensity:
Awareness – parties learning about each other
Discomfort – boundaries being pushed, values/beliefs being challenged
Annoyance – differences appear greater than similarities
Irritation – resulting from contradiction
Heightened Tension – there is possibly an overlay of fear as the boundaries of self are threatened
Anger – a protective strategy
Hostility – dispute solidifies as each party has a firm stance reflecting his or her position
Conflict/War – each party works hard to repress, neutralize, or destroy the other
The process is not necessarily a linear one. When emotions run deep, one could escalate immediately from awareness to hostility or any other level.
Emotional intelligence is one key to developing the ability to manage and appreciate differences. How can you develop the skills needed to increase your emotional intelligence?
1. By recognizing personal emotions when they are occurring;
2. Engaging in emotions that are appropriate to a situation;
3. Putting emotional energy into action for a useful purpose;
4. Sensitivity to others’ feelings;
5. Managing interpersonal relationships.
I will provide you with a scenario. Using Cox’s “Model for Planning Organizational Change,” outline your plan for helping this organization to manage its diversity. Be sure to identify and explain each step.
1. Leadership must commit to change and map a strategy for communication
2. There should be assessment of organization culture, experiences, and attitudes
3. Educational programs should increase awareness and build communication skills
4. Human resource departments should recruit, develop, compensate, and promote without bias
5. Accountability and evaluation of the change efforts should be ongoing
In spite of controversies and differing perspectives, more and more LGBT people are open about their identities and vocal about their desire for change. The Cass Identity Model is one of the fundamental theories of gay and lesbian identity development. (a) Identify and explain the six stages of gay and lesbian identity development. (b) Identify one possible response to each stage.
1. Identity Confusion – the person is amazed to think of themselves as a gay person.
Response: denial of homosexuality
2. Identity Comparison – the person accepts the possibility of being gay or lesbian and examines the wider implications of that tentative commitment.
Response: grieving for the things they give up by embracing their sexual orientation
3. Identity Tolerance – the person comes to the understanding that they are “not the only one”
Response: recognition that being lesbian or gay does not preclude other options
4. Identity Acceptance – congruence between private and public view of self
Response: Accepts gay and lesbian self-identification
5. Identity Pride – coming out of the closet
Response: gay culture sole source of support
6. Identity Synthesis – the person integrates their sexual identity with all other aspects of self
Response: allows trust of others to increase
Discuss two criticisms of the Cass Identity Model for gay and lesbian development.
1. Social stigmas and management practices have changed since the inception of the model
2. The linear nature of the model would suggest anyone who skips a step would not be well adjusted