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37 Cards in this Set

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Function of the thyroid gland
Secretes thyroxin and absorps iodide
What does the hormone thyroxine, secreted by the thyroid gland, do?
Increases the rate of cellular oxidation and influences growth and development of the body
What is the function of the parathyroid gland?
Secrets parathormone, which is responsible for regulating the amount of calcium and phosphate sales in the blood
What are the hormones of the anterior pituitary gland?
Growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH).
What is the function of the growth hormone?
Stimulates growth of bones
What is the function of prolactin?
regulates development of mammary glands of a pregnant female and stimulates secretion of milk after childbirth
What is the function of adrenocorticotropic hormone?
stimulates secretion of hormones by the cortex of the adrenal glands
What is the function of the follicle-stimulating hormone?
acts upon the gonads
What is the function of luteinizing hormone?
in male, causes cells in the testes to secrete androgen; in females, causes the follicle in an ovary to change into the corpus luteum
What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary gland?
Vasopressin or antidieuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytoxin
What is the function of ADH, or vasopressin?
causes walls of arterioles to contract, thus raising blood pressure; and regulates the amount of water reabsorbed by the nephrons
What is the function of oxytoxin in the posterior pituitary gland?
stimulates the muscles of the walls of the uterus to contract, inducing labor
Where is insulin secreted and what is its function?
Secreted by the pancreas and it acts to lower the level of glucose in the bloodstream, converting glucose to glycogen
What is the function of glucagon?
increases the level of glucose in the blood by converting glycogen to glucose
What are the two hormones of the adrenal medulla?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine.
What are the functions of epinephrine?
release of glucose into the liver, relaxation of smooth muscles, dilation of pupils of the eye, reduction in clotting time of blood, increase in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate.
What is the function of norephinephrine?
Responsible for the constriction of blood vessels.
What hormone does the pineal gland secrete?
It is responsible for the production of melatonin, which regulates sleep-wake cycles.
What hormone does the thymus gland secrete?
thymosin, which is secreted during infancy and promotes the antibody system.
Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) are produced by what gland?
The adrenal medulla
What hormone increases the conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver and muscle tissue, causing a rise in blood glucose levels and basal metabolic rate?
Epinephrine
What hormones are released during a sympathetic nervous response?
Epinephrine and norephinephrine.
What two hormones are also neurotransmitters?
epinephrine and norephinephrine
What hormone regulates plasma levels of sodium and potassium?
Mineralocorticoids, particularly aldosterone
What hormone causes active reabsorption of sodium and passive reabsorption of water in the nephron?
Aldosterone
What releasing hormone regulates ACTH?
Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)
In females, what does FHS secrete?
Estrogen
What effects does FSH have on males?
Stimulates maturation of seminiferous tubules and sperm production
The posterior pituitary does not synthesize hormones but stores and releases what two peptide hormones?
Oxytocin and ADH
How is hormone secretion stimulated in the posterior pituitary?
By action potentions descending from the hypothalamus
What hormone increases the permeability of the nephron's collecting duct to water, thereby promoting water reabsorption and increasing blood volume? Where does this hormone originate from?
ADH, or vasopressin. It originates in the posterior pituitary gland.
What decreases plasma Ca2+ concentration by inhibiting the release of Ca2+ from bone?
Calcitonin
The islets of Langerhans of the pancreas consists of alpha and beta cells that secrete what?
Alpha cells secrete glucagon, and beta cells secrete insulin
What hormone raises the Ca2+ concentration in the blood by stimulating Ca2+ release from the bone and dec Ca2+ excretion in the kidneys?
Parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid hormone stimulates release of calcium in bone, but calcium is bonded to phosphate. In effect, the breakdone of bone releases phosphate as well as calcium. What then will the parathyroid stimulate?
The PTH will then stimulate secretion of phophate by the KIDNEYS.
What does the kidney produce when blood volume falls?
Renin
What enzyme converts plasma protein angiotensinogen to angiotensin I?
Renin