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31 Cards in this Set

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TRH
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
Hypothalamus
Stimulates secretion of TSH and prolactin
- T3 converted from circulating T4
CRH
Corticotropin-releasing hormone
Hypothalamus
Stimulates secretion of ACTH
- Cortisol
GnRH
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
Hypothalamus
Stimulates secretion of LH and FSH
GHRH
Growth hormone releasing hormone
Hypothalamus
Stimulates secretion of growth hormone, inhibits hypothalamus
SRIF
Somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone (somatostatin)
Hypothalamus
Inhibits secretion of growth hormone
+ Somatomedins, GH
PIF
Prolactin-inhibiting factor (dopamine)
Hypothalamus
Inhibits secretion of prolactin
+ Prolactin
TSH
Thyroid-stimulating hormone
Anterior pituitary
Stimulates synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones
- T3 conversion from T4
FSH
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Anterior pituitary
Stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and estrogen secretion (granulosa cells)
Promotes sperm maturation (Sertoli cells)
+ GnRH
- Inhibin, estrogen
LH
Luteinizing hormone
Anterior pituitary
Stimulates ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, and synthesis of estrogen (granulosa cells) and prgesterone (theca cells)
Stimulates synthesis and secretion of testosterone (leydig cells)
+ GnRH
- Testosterone, estrogen
GH
Growth hormone (cortisol permisive)
Anterior pituitary
Stimulates protein synthesis, lipolysis
Inhibits glucose uptake
+ sleep, stress, puberty, hypoglycemia, excercise, GHRH(major)
- somatostatin, IGF, pregnancy, hyperglycemia
Prolactin
Anterior pituitary
Stimulates milk production and breast development
Inhibits ovulation and spermatogenesis
- Dopamine(PIF)
+ TRH (minor)
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Anterior pituitary
Stimulates synthesis and secretion of adrenal cortical hormones
+ CRH, hypoxemia, excercise, stress, hypoglycemia
- Cortisol
Beta-lipotropin
Anterior pituitary
?function? in human
MSH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Anterior pituitary
Stimulates melanin synthesis (? humans)
ADH
Antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
Supraoptic nuclei
Stimulates H2O reabsorption by renal collecting ducts
+ high serum osmolarity, low BP, nausea
- low serum osmolarity, ANP, alpha-Agonists, ethanol, high Ca2+
Oxytocin
Paraventricular Nuclei
Milk ejection and uterine contraction
+ Suckling, dilation of cervix
- Opioids, endorphins
T4, T3
L-thyroxine, Triiodothronine
Thyroid gland (follicular cells)
Increases skeletal growth, O2 consumption, cardiac output, heat production, fuel catabolism, maturation of nervous system (perinatal)
+ TSH
Cortisol
Glucocorticoids
Adrenal cortex (zona fasciculata)
Stimulates gluconeogenesis
Anti-inflammatory, immunosupression, up-regulate alpha1-receptors
+ ACTH
Estradiol
Ovary (granulosa cell)
Synthesized from testosterone by aromatase
Growth and development of female reproductive organs, maintains pregnanacy, lowers contractile threshold for uterus, stimulates prolactin production
Negative feedback in follicular phase and luteal phase
Positive feedback during ovulation
+ FSH
Progesterone
Ovary (theca cells)
Synthesis from pregnelone
Maintains pregnancy, develops breasts, raises uterine contractile threshold, maintains secretory activity of uterus in luteal phase
Negative feedback to hypothalamus in luteal phase
+ LH
Testosterone
Leydig cells
5alpha reductase -> DHEA
Spermatogenesis, male secondary sex characteristics, secretory activity
Inhibits LH and GnRH secretion
+ LH
PTH
Parathyroid hormone
Parathyroid gland (chief cells)
Incrases serum [Ca2+], resorption of bone, renal reabsorption, intestinal absorption
Decreases serum [phosphate], inhibit renal reabsorption
+ low [Ca2+]
- high [Ca2+]
Calcitonin
Parathyroid gland (parafollicular cells)
Decreases serum [Ca2+], inhibits bone resorption
+ high serum [Ca2+]
Aldosterone
Adrenal cortex (zona glomerulosa)
Increases renal Na+ reabsorption, water reabsorption, K+ secretion, and H+ secretion
+ Angiotensin II, hyperkalemia, 10%BV loss, CRH, ACTH
1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol
Kidney (activation)
Increases Ca2+, intestinal absorption, renal reabsorption, bone resorption
Increases intestinal [PO4-] absorption
+ low serum [Ca2+], high PTH, low serum [PO4-]
Insulin
Pancreas (beta cells)
Decreases blood [glucose], [amino acid], and [fatty acid], decreases blood [K+]
+ high blood D-glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, GH, cortisol, GIP, Glucagon
- low blood glucose, somatostatin
Glucagon
Pancreas (alpha cells)
Increases blood [glucose] and [fatty acid], increases glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, increases urea production
+ low blood glucose, high amino acids, CCK, catecholamines
- high blood glucose, somatostatin, insulin
HCG
Human chorionic gonadotropin
Placenta
Increases estrogen and progesterone synthesis in corpus luteum in pregnanacy
HPL
Human placental lactogen
Placenta
Same actions as growth hormone and prolactin during pregnancy
Androgen
DHEA + A
Adrenal cortex (zona reticularis)
Precursors of testosterone and estradiol
Inhibin
Sertoli cells
Inhibits FSH and GnRH secretion
+ Activin, FSH, testosterone
- Follistatin