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33 Cards in this Set

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Nutrition
science of foods and the nutrients and other substances they contain, and of their actions w/in the body (ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, metabolism, and excretion); social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of food and eating
Food choices depend on:
personal preference, habit, ethnic heritage or tradition, social interactions, availability, convenience, and economy, values, emotional comfort (alcohol and carbs calm, protein and caffeine activate), body weight and image, positive and negative associations, and nutrition and health benefits
Functional Foods
provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions
Nutrients
chemical substances from food used in body to provide energy, structural materials and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance and repair of body’s tissues, may reduce risk of some disease
Phytochemicals
nonnutrient compounds in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in body
Essential Nutrients
nutrients a person must obtain from food b/c the body can’t make them for itself in sufficient quantities to meet physiological needs, ~ 40 nutrients essential for humans (9 amino acids, 16 minerals, 13 vitamins); aka: indispensable nutrients
Metabolism
process by which nutrients are broken down to yield energy or to make body structures
Minerals
inorganic elements, 16 are essential (Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mg, S, Fe, I, Sn, Cr, Se, Fl, Cu, Mn, Mo), in bones, teeth and body fluids; since inorganic they’re indestructible but can be bound by substances that interfere w/ body’s ability to absorb, lost during food-refinement or while cooked by leaching into discarded water
Epidemiological Studies
- determine incidence and distribution of diseases in population
-include case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional
- pros: can narrow down list of possible causes, can raise new questions to pursue in other types of studies
-cons: can’t control variables that may influence development or prevention, can’t prove cause and effect
Lab-based Studies
include in vitro studies, animal studies, and human intervention studies
Dietary Reference Intakes
set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in US and Canada, values used to plan and assess diets, include: EAR, RDA, UL, and AI
EAR
Estimated Average Requirements (EAR): average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age and gender group
RDA
o Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA): average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people; goal for dietary intake of individuals
AI
o Adequate Intakes (AI): average daily amount of nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain specified criterion; used as guide for intake when RDA can’t be determined
UL
o Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL): maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people, beyond which there’s increased risk of adverse effects
Energy Recommendations
o Estimated Energy Requirement (EER): average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health in person of given age, gender, weight, height, and level of activity; no upper level b/c any excess = weight gain
o Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR): ranges of intakes for energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduces risk of chronic diseases
 Carbs = 45-65%
 Fat = 20-35%
 Protein = 10-35%
Nutrition Assessment
comprehensive analysis of person’s nutrition status
o Historical information: health stats, SES, drug use, and diet
o Antropometric data: measurements of the physical characteristics of body, compared to standards for specific gender and age or to previous measurements of same person
o Physical examinations: doesn’t point to conclusions by itself
o Lab tests: blood or urine samples compared to normal values for similar population, most useful way to discover early signs
Deficiencies
o Primary: caused by inadequate dietary intake of nutrient; id’d by diet history
o Secondary: caused by something other than inadequate intake i.e. disease condition or drug interaction that reduces absorption, accelerates use, hastens excretion, or destroys nutrient; id’d by health history
o Subclinical: in early stages b/f outward signs appear
Registered Dietitian
minimum of bachelor’s degree from accredited university or college, has completed approved course work and a supervised practice program, has passed national exam and maintains registration through continuing professional education; qualified to evaluate people’s nutritional health needs
Diet-planning Principles
o Adequacy: provide all essential nutrients, fiber and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health
o Balance: providing foods in proportion to each other and to body’s needs, ensures adequacy
o kCalorie (Energy) Control: management of food E intake; energy intake should = energy expenditure, key is to select foods w/ high nutrient density
o Nutrient density: measure of nutrients provided relative to energy provided
o Moderation: providing enough but not too much of a substance, contributes to adequacy, balance and kcal control
o Variety: eating a wide selection of foods w/in and among major food groups to ensure array of nutrients, minimizes substances that in excess could be harmful
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
o Aim for Fitness: Aim for a healthy weight. Be physically active each day.
o Build a Healthy Base: let the Pyramid guide your food choices, choose a variety of grains, fruits and vegetables daily and keep food safe
o Choose sensibly in use of fats, sugars, salt and alcoholic beverages
Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating
o Enjoy a VARIETY of foods.
o Emphasize cereals, breads, other grain products, vegetables and fruit.
o Choose lower-fat dairy products, leaner meats and food prepared with little or no fat.
o Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight by enjoying regular physical activity and healthy eating.
o Limit salt, alcohol and caffeine.
Food Group Plans
diet-planning tools that sort foods of similar origin and nutrient content into groups and then specify that people should eat certain #s of servings
Daily Food Guides
lists # of servings recommended, most notable nutrients of each group, serving sizes and foods w/in each group categorized by nutrient density
Exchange Lists
diet-planning tools that organize food by their proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein, foods on any single list can be used interchangeably; help w/ kcal control and moderation (vs. adequacy, balance and variety of food group plans)
Refined
coarse parts removed; flour, bran (protective coating around kernel, rich in nutrients and fiber), germ (seed rich in vitamins and minerals to support new life), and husk (inedible chaff) removed from wheat leaving the endosperm (starch and proteins)
Types of Flour
• white: endosperm refined and bleached
• unbleached: tan-coloured endosperm flour nutritionally similar to white flour
• wheat: any made from wheat (including white), refined
• whole-wheat: made from whole-wheat kernels
Nutrition facts will appear on food except:
o Alcoholic Beverages;
o Fresh fruit and vegetables;
o Raw single ingredient meat and poultry except for ground meat and ground poultry;
o Raw single ingredient fish and seafood;
o Food containing insignificant amounts of the 13 nutrients required in the Nutrition Facts table;
o Food products sold only in the retail establishment where they are prepared or processed;
o Individual servings of food intended for immediate consumption
Foods will lose their exempt status if:
o Their labels or advertisements carry a nutrition or a health claim;
o Vitamins or minerals have been added;
o Sweeteners such as aspartame have been added
Nutrient Claims
statements that characterize quantity of nutrient in food
Health Claims
statements that characterize the relationship b/w a nutrient or other substance in a food and a disease or health-related condition
Permitted Health Claims
restricted to scientifically established relationships between diet and the reduction in risk of chronic disease; include:
• sodium and potassium, and the link to high blood pressure;
• calcium and vitamin D, and the link to osteoporosis;
• saturated fat, trans fat, and the link to heart disease; and
• vegetables and fruit, and the link to some types of cancer.
• The new regulations also provide for a claim with respect to tooth decay for chewing gum, hard candy and breath-freshening products that contain a minimal amount of those carbohydrates that promote tooth decay.
Structure Function Claims
statements that characterize the relationship b/w a nutrient or other substance in a food and its role in the body, do not require FDA approval