Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/30

Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
AIDS was first reported in the US in _____. It is doing ___ again. Fatality rates are approaching ____%.
1981; 100%
The disease damages or kills the _____ of the body's _______. It destroys the body's ability to fight infections and certain cancers.
cells; immune system
In 1984, researchers found the primary causal agent, ______. They found the second one, _____ in 1986. HIV-2 was isolated from W. Africa, where it may been prevalent decades earlier.
HIV-1; HIV-2
Like flu, measles, AIDS is a __________ or a RNA Virus. It is, however, a ______ virus. There is a long interval between initial infection and the onset of the serious symptoms.
retrovirus; slow
Since 1981, over ___ people have died of a disease related to AIDS. ____M are probably affected worldwide today although the estimate is around 44-46M. Annually, it increases by about _____.
22M; 50M; 3.5M;
Daily, there are ______ new cases and ______ deaths. More than ____% of these deaths are in developing countries. Currently, there are an estimated ____ AIDS orphans and is expected to double by _______.
16,000; 8,000; 13M; 2015
AIDS is commonly spread by 5 things:
1) unprotected sex
2) contaminated needles
3) infected blood
4) mother to child during pregnancy or child birth
5) saliva
AIDS virus can enter the body through the lining of the: 5 things
1) vagina
2) penis
3) vulva
4) rectum
5) mouth
The only way to know is through ______.
tests
A ______ to a _____ of all untreated pregnant women will pass HIV to their babies. If moms take certain drugs during pregnancy, she can reduce the chance that her baby be infected. If drugs and a c-section is performed, rate of infection can be reduced by ____%.This issue has been eradicated using this method in the ____.
quarter; third; 1%; UK
HIV is classified as a gradual deterioration of immune function, most notably crucial _____ cells called CD4 positive T cells. When CD4+ T cells falls below _____, a person becomes vulnerable to opportunistic infections. A healthy uninfected person has _______ CD4+ T cells.
immune;200/mm^3; 800-1200/mm^3
What is a common secondary infection resulting from AIDS?
pneumocystic pneumonia
When first infected, many experience __________ illness within a month or two after exposure.
flu-like
Complications include:
- large lymph nodes
- frequent fevers and sweats
- lack of energy
- PID in women
- persistent yeast infections
Because of the complications, patients are sometimes often mistaken as a viral infection. Many symptoms may not appear for ___ years or more after HIV first enters the body. Symptoms may include:
10;
- PID
- flaky skin
- rashes
- ST memory loss
- weight loss
- frequent and insevere herpes; mouth and genital sores
- children grow slowly and they're sick
There are ___ clinical conditions that affect people with advanced HIV disease. Eg: _____, _____. They are particularly vulnerable to some cancers.
26; cervical cancer; Kaposi's sarcoma
AIDS is basically the most ________ stage of HIV.
advantage
CDC definition of HIV
People with less than 200 CD4+ T cells / mm^3 and displays one of the 26 clincial conditions
Diagnosis is usually done by testing blood to look for the presence of ___________ to HIV. High levels are produced in most infected individuals.
antibodies
Does HIV survive well outside the body?
No
Treatment include 3 ways although there are few treatments for the opportunistic diseases that results.
1) nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibits
2) protease inhibitors
3) fusion inhibitors
The use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase:
interrupts an early stage of virus making copies of itself
Protease inhibitors..
interrupts the virus from making copies of itself at a LATER time in the life cycle.
Fusion inhibitors...
interferes with HIV-1's ability to enter the cells.
Also used HAART which stands for _____ ______ _____ ______. It uses ____ or more drugs. It's _____ a cure, but reduces the amount of virus circulating in the blood to almost undetectable levels
highly active antiretroviral therapy; 3; not
some drugs do cause inflammation of the _______, however.
pancreas
ABC stands for ____ in Uganda.
A = abstinance
B = be faithful
C = condom or die
Believed to have come from the primate species, chimps, _____________.
pan troglodytes troglodytes'
The disease primarily affects younger persons who are the major work source in the world. In 1999, Sub-Saharan Africa's GDP was _____. S. Africa produced _____. Models show that S. African growth will decline by _____ annually due to AIDS/ HIV.
$324B; 1/3; 0.4%
Microbicides are compounds that can be applied inside the vagina or rectum to protect against ___________ including HIV. They can be formulated as gels, creams, films, or suppositories. Microbicides may or may not have spermicidal activity (contraceptive effect). At present, an effective microbicide is not available.
sexually transmitted infections