Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/75

Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiallly and officially "defined" AIDS after 100 cases were reported in:
1982
According to one study, the greasest numver of reported HIV cases were due to:
Male homosexual contact
The racial/ethnic group that has the highest rate of exposure due to injecton drug used among men is:
Hispanics
Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) medications should be atarted within _____ after exposure but no longer than ________ to offer any benefit.
2 hours; 72 hours
Up to 85% of individuals infected with HIV will develop symptoms of AIDS within ____________ yeares agter infection.
10 years
Abormal laboratory findings seen with AIDS include:
postive ELISA test
One of the most frequent systemic side effects of anti-HIV drugs is:
lipodystrophy syndrome
The most common infection inpersons with AIDS is:
pheumocystis carinii pneumonia
at least 90% of individuals with AIDS experience
candidiasis
The minimum number of dailyl protein calories for 70 kg individual with AIDS-related "wasting syndrome" is:
35
The minimum numver of daily calories recommended for a 70kg individual with AIDS related "wasting syndrome" is:
2800
The most common malignancy seen with HIV infection is:
Kaposis's sarcoma
In the US, five states have the largest number of reported AID cases (1999 - 2000). Thety are:
California, Florida, New York, Illilnois, and texas
The two major means of HIV transmission are:
Unprotected sex and the sharing of injection durg use equipment
list five types of body fluids that can trasmit HIV -1:
blood, seminal fluid, vaginal secretions, amniotic fluid, and breast milk
HIV belongs to a group of viruses known as:
retroviruses that carry their genetic material in the form of RNA
List two of four selected laboratory tests used for diagnosing and tracking HIV:
Enzyme immunoassay (EIA), western blot assay, viral load, and CD4/CD8 ratio
Treatment decisions for HIV are based on three criteria:
HIV-RNA viral load, CD4 T-cell count levels, and the clinical condition of the patient
The four goals of treatment are
maximum suppression of viral load, restoration/preservation of immunologic function, improved quality of life, and reduced HIV-related mortality and morbidity
all anati-HIV drus work in one of two ways:
Anti-HIV drugs attempt to block viral replication within cells by inhiviting either reverse transcriptase of HIV protease
the initial manifestation of AIDS in more than 60% of patients is the appearance of
Pneumocystis carnii pneumonia
A recommended chemotherapeutic agent for Kaposi's sarcoma is:
Alpha-interferon
clinical Category A
acute primary HIV infection; persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL)
Clinical Category B
hairy leukoplakia; bacillary angiomatosis
Clinical Category C
histoplasmosis; Kaposi's sarcoma; pneumocystis carinii; extrapulmonary crytococcosis
Describe the stage of HLIV disease known as primary infection
period from infection with HIV to the development of antibodies to HIV. It is the time during which the viral burden set point is achived and includes the acute symptoms and early infection phases.
Brenden is a 39-year-old homoslexual who has been recently diagnosed with AIDS. On initial assessment, the nurse identifies 2 major potential risk factors associated with AIDS:
risky sexual practices and intravenous drug use
Brenden is a 39-year-old homoslexual who has been recently diagnosed with AIDS. As part of her assessment, the nurse checks Brenden for candidiasis. To do this, she would inspect Brenden's:
oral cavity
Brenden is a 39-year-old homoslexual who has been recently diagnosed with AIDS. Assessment data indicated dehydration as evidenced by:
urine specific gravity grater than 1.025
Brenden is a 39-year-old homoslexual who has been recently diagnosed with AIDS. The assessment data indicates five possible collaborative problems
opportunistic infections, impaired breathing or respiratory failure, wasting syndrome, fluid and electrolyte imbalance.
Brenden is a 39-year-old homoslexual who has been recently diagnosed with AIDS. The nurseadvises Brenden to avoid certainl foods that are bowel irritants to prevent diarrhea. She advises him not to eat:
popcorn
Brenden is a 39-year-old homoslexual who has been recently diagnosed with AIDS. to improve Brenden's nutritional status, the nurse would:
encourage him to rest before eating, limit fluids 1 hour before meals, serve five to six small meals per day
alpha-interferon:
protein substance that the body produces in response to infection
anergy
loss or weakening of the body's immunity to an irritating agent or antigen
B-cell lymphoma
common malilgnancy in patients with HIV/AIDS
candidiasis
yeast infection of skin or mucous membrane
CCR5
cell surface molecule that is needed along with the CD4 molecule to fuse with the membranes of the host's immune sylstem cells
cytomegalovirus
a species-specific herpes virus that may cause retinitis in people with AIDS
EIA (ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY)
a blood test taht determines that presence of antibodies to HIV in the blood or saliva; also referred to as enzykme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/ positive results must be validated, usually with Western blot test.
HIV-1
retrovirus isolated and recognized as the etiologic agent of AIDS
HIV-2
virus closely related to HIV-1 that has also been found to cause AAIDS
HIV encephaloppathy
degenerative neurologic condition characterized by a group of clinical presentationms including loss of coordination, mood swings, loss of inkhibitions, and widespread cognitive dysfunctions; formerly referred to as AIDS dementia complex (ADC)
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
virus that causes venereal warts
Kaposi's sarcoma
malignancy that involves the epithelial layer of blood and llymphatic vessels
macrophage
large immune cell that devours invading pathogens and other intruders. Can harbor large quantities of HIV without being killed, acting as reservoir of the virus.
monocyte
large white blood cell that ingests microbes or other cells and foreign particles. When a monocyte enters tissues, it develops into a macrophage
opportunistic infection caused by mycobacteral organismw that commonlycauses a respiratory illness but can also infect other body systems.
Mycobacterium avium comples (MAC)
opportunistic infection(OI)
illness caused by various organisms, some of which usually do not cause disease in persons with normal immune systems
p24 antigen
blood test that measures viral core protein; accuracy of tesst is limited because the p24 antibody binds with the antigen and makes it undetectable
peripheral neuropathy
disorder characterrized by sensory loss, pain, muscle weakness, and wasting of muscles inl the hands or legs and feet
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
common opportunistic lung infection caused by an organism, initially thought to be a protozoan but now believed to be a fungusbased on its structure
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a sensitive laboratory technique that can detect and qukantify HIV in a person's blood or lymph nodes
primary infection
4 to 7 week kperiod of rapid viral replication immediately following infection; also known as acute HIC infection
progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)
opportunistic infection that infects brain tissue and causes damage to the brain and spinal cord
protease inhibitor
medication taht inhibits the funciton of protease, an enzykme needed for HILV replication
provirus
viral genetic material in the form of DNA that has been integrated into the host genome. When it is dormant in human cells, HIV is in a proviral form
retrovirus
a vilrus that carries genetic material in RNA il;nstead of DNA and constailns reverse transcriptase
reverse transacriptase
enzyme thattransforms single-stranded RNA into a double stranded DNA
viral load test
measures the quantilty of HIV RNA in the blood
vilral set point
amount of virus present in the blood after the ilnitial burst of vilremia and the immune response that follows
wasting syndrome
involuntary weight loss of 10% of baseline body weight with chronic diarrhea or chronic weakness and documented fever
western blot assay
a blood test that identifies antibodies to HIV and is used to confirm the results of an EIA (ELISA) test
window period
time from infection with HIV until seroconversion detected on HIV antibody test
Interpretation of Positive Test Results
1. Antibody to HIV are present in the blood.
2. HIV is active in teh body, and the patient can transmit the virus to others
3. Despite HIV infectionm, the patient does not necessarily have AIDS
4. The patient is not immune to AIDS
Interpretation of (-) test results
1. antibodies to HIV are not present in the blood at this time, which can mean that the patient has not been infected with HIV or, if infected, the body has not yet produced antibodies (which takes from 3 weeks to 6 months or longer)
2. The patient shoul continue taking precautions. The test result does not mean that the patient is immune to the virus, nor does it mean the patient is not infected; it just means that the body amy not have producd antibodies yet.
A client who is newly diagnosed with myultiple myeloma asks the physician what treatment will be necessary. The nurse should expect the physician to reply:
"Chemotherapy employing a combination of drugs."
a client with multiple myeloma is scheduled to have a chest x-ray examination and a bene scan. for this client, the primary responsibility of the nursing and radiology staff is to:
Handle the client with supportive movements - because of bone erosion, pathological fractures are a frequent complicaton on multiple myeloma
The diagnostic finding most specific for multiple myeloma is
bence-jones protein in the urine
A 26 year old client with a history of chronic myelogenous leukemia and splenomeagly is admitted to the hospital, ?The nurse should expect this client to haave:
A tender mass in the left upper abdomen - Splenomegaly usually accompanies chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML); it is usually gross, papable, and tender and necessitates removal; the spleen ils located high in the abdomen on the left side and is not usually palpable unless it is enlarged.
When obtaining a health history from a young client with probable acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), the clinical manifestations that nurse should expect to be present are;
anorexia, petechiae - because of bone marrow depression and repidly proliferating leukocytes; anorexia is a general response to many illnesses
A client who is suspected of having leukemia has a bone marrow aspiration. Immediately following the procedure, the nurse should:
Brief pressure is generally enough to prevent bleeding
The laboratory results for a client following chemotherapy for cancer indicate bone marrow depression. The nurse should encourage the client to:
use elecric razor when shaving - suppression of bone marrow increass bleeding susceptibility associated with decreased platelets
An elderly client develops severe bone marrow depression from chemotherapy for cancer of the prostate. The nurse should
use a soft toothbrush for his oral hygiene - Thrombocytopenia occurs with most chemotherapy; using a soft toothbrtush helps prevent bleeding gums
The nurse should plan to teach a client with pancytopenia caused by chemotherapy to:
Avoid traumatic injuries and exposure to any infection - reduced platelets increase the likelihood of uncontrolled bleeding; reduced lymphocytes incease susceptibility to infection
The physician has decided to use total nodal irradiation in conjunction with chemotherapy for a young female client with stage IIIA Hodgkin's disease. The client tells the nurse she wants to have children and is quite concerned that the radiation therapy include the pelvic nodal areas. When questioned about this, the nurse should refer the client to the physician. because the nurse should be qware that:
The ovaries can be surgically removed and placed in a shielded area - Women in the childbearing years should be informed of all options abailabel to pr3serve ovarian funciton