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23 Cards in this Set

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How did Hitler challenge and exploit the ToV?

Hitler’s foreign policy aims:
The treaty of Versailles?
Hitler did not acknowledge the ToV and was determined to rearm and restore German land lost in 1919.

He also aimed to defy the treaty by uniting German-speaking peoples which would include Anschluss (union with Austria) which was forbidden under the ToV.

Hitler would immediately leave the LofN.
None
How did Hitler challenge and exploit the ToV?

Hitler’s foreign policy aims:
A greater Germany
Hitler wanted to create a ‘Greater Germany’ by uniting all Germans into one homeland.

In 1935, the Saar would have a plebiscite (vote) to decide whether to return to Germany (it had been under LofN control for 15 years).

Austria was a German-speaking nation and Hitler aimed for union (Anschluss) even though this was forbidden under the ToV.

Then there were the Sudeten Germans who lived in northern Czechoslovakia.

There were also some German settlements further east , e.g. Poland.
None
How did Hitler challenge and exploit the ToV?

Hitler’s foreign policy aims:
Lebensraum
Lebensraum is German for ‘living space’.

‘Greater Germany’ would have a population of 85 million – Hitler believed that it would be impossible to feed them without obtaining extra territory to provide food and raw materials.

Hitler aimed to expand eastwards because he hated communism and regarded the Slavs as inferior race.
None
How did Hitler challenge and exploit the ToV?

Key dates in Hitler’s foreign policy:
1933 – 3 key events
1933

Hitler became chancellor

German delegates walked out of disarmament conference

Germany left League of Nations.
None
How did Hitler challenge and exploit the ToV?

Key dates in Hitler’s foreign policy:
1935 – 3 key events
1935

Hitler announced conscription – army increased to 550,000 – this led to GB, France and Italy signing defensive Stresa Front

Anglo-German naval treaty – first example of appeasement - allowed Germany to break ToV (larger navy and submarine fleet) – this angered France and ended Stresa Front

Saar plebiscite gave Hitler great boost as over 90% voted to return to Germany
None
How did Hitler challenge and exploit the ToV?

Key dates in Hitler’s foreign policy:
1936 – 1 key event
1936

German reoccupation of the Rhineland (March).
First clear indication that France and Britain were not prepared to risk war – policy of appeasement.
Good timing by Hitler because he acted when League was focused on the Abyssinian crisis.
None
How did Hitler challenge and exploit the ToV?

Key dates in Hitler’s foreign policy:
1938 – 2 key events
1938

Anschluss – union with Austria (March)

Sudetenland crisis – appeasement of Hitler at Munich conference (September) followed by German occupation of Sudetenland.
None
How did Hitler challenge and exploit the ToV?

Key dates in Hitler’s foreign policy
1939 – 5 key events
1939

Remainder of Czechoslovakia invaded (March)

End of appeasement – GB & French guarantees to Poland

Pact of Steel (May) – signed by Hitler and Mussolini

Nazi-Soviet Pact (August)

German invasion of Poland (September 1)
None
Key Events in Hitler’s aggressive Foreign Policy

Leaving the League & Rearmament
Hitler ordered Germany’s withdrawal from the disarmament conference,
Started massive spending on rearmament,
Left the League of Nations...
.. as soon as he came to power in January 1933.
None
Key Events in Hitler’s aggressive Foreign Policy

The remilitarization of the Rhineland
The remilitarization of the Rhineland was the first aggressive act that breached the territorial terms of the ToV.
None
Key Events in Hitler’s aggressive Foreign Policy

Anschluss
Hitler ordered German army into Austria in March 1938, in open defiance of the ToV.
Hitler was afraid that plebiscite in Austria would reject Anschluss & so applied pressure for pro-Nazi chancellor to be appointed who then invited Germans in.
None
Key Events in Hitler’s aggressive Foreign Policy

Czechoslovakia
Hitler claimed that Sudeten Germans were subject to persecution & threatened war.
GB PM Chamberlain urged Czech government to allow the Sudetenland self government.
After series of meetings in September 1938 it looked as though war was inevitable, but then at the Munich Conference GB and France agreed to Hitler’s demands without consulting the Czechs.
Hitler took Sudetenland.

In March 1939 Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia, taking over the western half and leaving the eastern half – Slovakia – as a puppet state.
None
Key Events in Hitler’s aggressive Foreign Policy

Nazi-Soviet Pact
The German foreign minister, Ribbentrop, and his Soviet counter-part, Molotov, signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact. This shocked the world.

Hitler now could invade Poland and not fear war on two fronts.

The pact meant that Poland would be divided between Germany and the USSR.
Appeasement – why did it fail to prevent war?

Why appeasement?
Desire to avoid horrors of WWI – next war even worse (seen bombing in Spanish Civil war)
TofV too harsh
Communism greater threat – Hitler a ‘buffer’
GB slow to rearm
Depression meant that government wanted to focuson matters at home
None
Appeasement – why did it fail to prevent war?

The Anglo-German naval treaty & Rhineland
Britain willing to make naval concessions because she felt ToV to be too harsh
Alienated France and destroyed Stresa Front

Rhineland showed France to be unwilling to risk war – did not have the support of GB

Hitler believed that he could now become bolder.
None
Appeasement – why did it fail to prevent war?

Anschluss
GB and France protested but did not take action

Crucial moment in appeasement because Hitler now felt confident enough to go beyond simply defying ToV
None
Appeasement – why did it fail to prevent war?

Munich
Hitler claimed that Sudeten Germans were subject to persecution & threatened war

GB PM Chamberlain urged Czech government to allow the Sudetenland self government
After series of meetings in September 1938 it looked as though war was inevitable, but then at the Munich Conference GB and France agreed to Hitler’s demands without consulting the Czechs

Hitler took Sudetenland
None
Appeasement – why did it fail to prevent war?

The end of appeasement
The end of appeasement followed invasion of rest of Czechoslovakia in March 1939

Chamberlain gave guarantees to Poland and Romania – seen as the next targets
None
The outbreak of war

The end of appeasement
Appeasement ended with Hitler’s invasion of the remainder of Czechoslovakia in March 1939.

Clear that Hitler’s promises were worthless.
None
The outbreak of war

The Pact of Steel
In May 1939, Hitler and Mussolini, encouraged by the weakness of Britain and France, signed the Pact of Steel in which they promised to act side by side.
None
The outbreak of war

Poland
In March 1939 Hitler demanded that the Polish Corridor and Danzig be returned to Germany.

In response, GB and France gave guarantees to Poland.
None
The outbreak of war

The Nazi-Soviet Pact
In August 1939, the German foreign minister, Ribbentrop, and his Soviet counter-part, Molotov, signed the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.
This shocked the world.

Hitler now could invade Poland and not fear war on two fronts.

The pact meant that Poland would be divided between Germany and the USSR.
None
The outbreak of war
Hitler ordered the invasion of Poland on 1.9.1939

He didn’t think that GB & Fr would act and he no longer needed to worry about the USSR
None