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79 Cards in this Set

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Abraham: (where was he from, what year,...)
-From Ur
-CA 1900 BCE
-Brought from Mesopotamia to Canaan
-Entered into a Covenant
Neolithic Revolution
-CA 10,000 BCE- 6,000 BCE
-earliest villages
-earliest architecture
-pastoral nomadisism
Agricultural Revolution: Theory 1
Oasis Theory of V. Gordon Childe
-10,000 BCE glaciers retreat
-food sources changed and people followed food
-smaller areas "oases", could support populations as the range of seed crops and animals was reduced
-resources were then so by human alteration that they became domesticated and could not survive as unattended crops
Agricultural Revolution: Theory 2
-Demographic Explanation
1.Population pressure theories
2.Marginal Habitat Hypothesis
3.Readiness Hypothesis
Agricultural Revolution: Theory 2 (Population Pressure Theories)
population increased after ice age, and to support themselves so agriculture was developed to support population.
Agricultural Revolution: Theory 2 (Marginal Habitat Hypothesis)
when the land could no longer support the people they moved and took animals and plants with them
Agricultural Revolution: Theory 2(Readiness Hypothesis)
no specific environmental reasons. People were just culturally ready to develop plants and animals that were already semi-domesticated. People became sedentary in places where wild plants and animals amenable to domestication were found.
Akhenaten
-Egyptian
-ruled 1353 BC 1335 BC
-was a pharoah of 18th dynasty of Egypt
-attempted to single-handedly restructure the Egyptian religion to monotheistically worship the Ate
Akkadians
-people from Akkad, the first major empire. Located in Mesopotamia
Alexander the Great
-King of Macedon 336-323 BCE
-one of the most successful ancient Greeks
-conquered most of the world known to the ancient Greeks
-conquered the persian empire,egyptian,etc.
-taught by Aristotle
Amos
portrays yhwh as God whose laws extended to all people: ethical morality and monotheism moral regeneration rather then ritualism
Aristotle
-384-322 BCE
-a student of Plato
-teacher of Alexander the Great
-one of the most influential philosophers
Babylonian captivity
-CA 597-591 BCE
-The Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar
Book of the Dead
The Book of the Dead is the common name for ancient Egyptian funerary texts known as The Book of Coming [or Going] Forth By Day
-The Book of the Dead is the common name for ancient Egyptian funerary texts known as The Book of Coming [or Going] Forth By Day
Carthage
-ancient city in north africa
-a settlement of Phoenicians colonists
-destroyed in the 3rd punic war
Chaldeans
Part of Babylonia
-in 612 BCE destroyed Ninevah
-conquered Judah
Confucius
-551 BCE-479 BCE
-chinese Philosopher
Cuniform
-ca 3000 BCE
-one of the earliest forms of writing
-wedge shaped
-Sammarians
Cyrus the Great
-Created Persia
-Conquered Babylonia in 539 BCE
-Freed the Jews
-Religious Tolerance
Darius 1: or Darius of Persia
-CA 549-485 BCE
-Converted to Zoroastrianism
-King during Persian Wars
-invaded Greece but failed
Darius III
-CA 380-330 BCE
-Last king of Achaemenid Empire
-Deposed during Alexander the Greats conquest
Delian League
-5th Century BCE
-Association of Greek City States
-the Polis gave money to the league to build up defenses (in case Persia tried to invade again)
Diaspora
-The Exile of the Jews from Judea in 586 BCE by the Babylonians
-then again in AD 136 by the Roman Empire
Enlil
-"Lord of the Open Field" or possibly "Lord of the Wind"
-was the name of a chief deity in Sumerian religion
Epic of Gilgamesh
-epic poem from Babylonia
-a series of summarian legends
-Gilgamesh and Enkidu are friends
-Gilgamesh from Kish
Epicureanism
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. 340–c. 270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention.
Euphrates
The Euphrates is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the Tigris)
Hammurabi
ca. 1810 BCE – 1750 BCE), was the sixth king of Babylon. He became the first king of the Babylonian Empire, extending Babylon's control over Mesopotamia by winning a series of wars against neighboring kingdoms.
Hellenistic
spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. According to Droysen, the Hellenistic civilization was a fusion of Greek and Near Eastern cultures
helot
were the serfs of Sparta
Horodotus
(484 BC–ca. 425 BC
-is regarded as the "father of history".
-He is almost exclusively known for writing The Histories, a collection of 'inquiries
Hittites
1. Hittites
a.Indo-European
b.1600-717 BCE
c.Empire greatest 1600-1200 BCE
d. after thier collapse they left a power vacuum
e. inclusivists-added others gods to thier own
Hyksos
were an Asiatic,likely Semitic people who invaded the eastern Nile Delta
-initiating the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt.
They rose to power in the 1600's BCE, (according to the traditional chronology) and ruled Lower and Middle Egypt for over 100 years, forming the Fifteenth and possibly the Sixteenth Dynasties of Egypt, (c. 1648–1540 BC)
-The Hyksos introduced new tools of warfare into Egypt, most notably the composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot.
Iliad
The Iliad (Greek Ἰλιάς, Iliás) is, together with the Odyssey, one of two ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer, supposedly a blind Ionian poet. Most modern scholars consider the epics to be the oldest literature in the Greek language, possibly equalled by Hesiod, dated to the 8th or 7th century BC.
Legalism
-Chinese legal philosophy
-"Legalism" here can bear the meaning of "political philosophy that upholds the rule of law"
-Near the end of the Zhou dynasty from about the sixth century BC to about the third century BC
loess
-A type of Soil
-it is a fine, silty, windblown (eolian) type of unconsolidated deposit
Mandate of Heaven
was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. Heaven would bless the authority of a just ruler, but Heaven would be displeased with an unwise ruler and give the Mandate to someone else. "Mandate of Heaven" was also the very first era name of the Qin Dynasty.
Marathon
The Battle of Marathon, took place in 490 BC and was the culmination of King Darius I of Persia's first major attempt to conquer the remainder of Greece and incorporate it into the Persian Empire, to secure the weakest portion of his western border. Most of what is known of this battle comes from Herodotus.
-Athenians Defeat the Persians
Meroë
-Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile
-This city was the capital of the Kingdom of Kush for several centuries.
-
Mithraism
i.God that was worshiped before Ahuramazda
1.Became associated with Zoroastrianism by 4th century BCE
2.Mithras: sun god, savior figure; ahuramazda’s chief
3.Mithras cult associated with Dec. 25th
a.Was popular in Rome
4.dies in the struggle comes back to life
5.followers believed they too can come back to life
6.secretive initiation rites, expensive
7.baptized in bulls blood
8.only men could join
Narmer
-First Pharaoh
-Pharaoh who ruled in the 31st century BC. Thought to be the successor to the predynastic Scorpion, he is considered by some to be the founder of the First dynasty, and therefore the first king of all Egypt
-some believe he unified egypt (upper and lower)
Nile River
is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world
-tamed
-predictable
Nineveh
was an important city in ancient Assyria. This "exceeding great city", as it is called in the Book of Jonah, lay on the eastern bank of the Tigris in modern-day Mosul, Iraq
Odyssey
The Odyssey (Greek Οδύσσεια (Odússeia) ) is one of the two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to the Ionian poet Homer.
Osiris
is the Egyptian god of life, death, and fertility. He is one of the oldest Gods for whom records have survived and first appears in the pyramid texts around 2400 BC
Papyrus
Papyrus is an early form of paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt
Peloponnesian War
1.Athens began to try to establish colonies in the Adriatic
2.Sparta starts to feel encroached upon
3.They go to war
4.They destroy eachother
5.Athenians baracade themselves within the walls of Athens
6.Spartans come to besiege the city
7.Athens is weakened by infighting
8.Both weakened by a plague (smallpox?)
9. Sparta wins
10.Creates a vacuum for Alexander to Conquer the Greeks
Penelope
-Wife of Odysseus
Persian Wars
-499-448 BCE
-Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between several Greek city-states and the Persian Empire
-The expression "Persian Wars" usually refers to both Persian invasions of the Greek mainland in 490 BC and in 480-479 BC[citation needed]; in both cases, the allied Greeks successfully repelled the invasions
-led by Darius I
Phalanx
is a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, or similar weapons
Philistines
-CA 1175 BCE
-were a people who invaded the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites
-seafaring people
Phoenecia
Phoenician civilization was an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC, between the period of 1200 BC to 900 BC
-Canaanites
-Seafaring tradesmen
-called phonecian because of purple dye
Plato
-427-347 BCE
-student of Socrates
-ancient Greek Philosopher
-wrote the diologues
polis
-a city-state
-most of ancient Greece was organized in polises
Polyphemus
-a character in Greek mythology, is a Cyclops, the one-eyed son of Poseidon and Thoosa
Protagorus
-"man is the measure of all things"
Rameses II
-CA 1302 BCE
-most powerful pharaoh
-lived to be in his 90's
-beleived to be the Pharoah of the Exodus
The Republic
is an influential work of philosophy and political theory by the Greek philosopher Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. It is written in the format of a Socratic dialogue
Rosetta stone
-written with the same passage of writing in two Egyptian language scripts (hieroglyphic and demotic) and in classical Greek. It was created in 196 BC, discovered by the French in 1799 at Rosetta
-helped decipher hieroglyphics
Salamis
Salamis was an ancient city-state on the east coast of Cyprus, at the mouth of the river Pedieos, 6 km North of Famagusta.
Shang Dynasty
a.1900 bce-1100 bce
b.Warrior aristocracy
2.Had early examples of Chinese writings
d.Shamanistic
Skepticism
In classical philosophy, skepticism refers to the teachings and the traits of the Skeptikoi, a school of philosophers of whom it was said that they "asserted nothing but only opined" (Liddell and Scott). In this sense, philosophical skepticism, or pyrrhonism, is the philosophical position that one should avoid the postulation of final truths.
Socrates
-CA470–399 BC was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy.
Solomon
-965-922 BCE
-is a figure described in Middle Eastern scriptures as a wise ruler of an empire centred on the united Kingdom of Israel
Sophists
In the second half of the 5th century B.C., and especially at Athens, "sophist" came to be applied to a group of thinkers and speakers who employed rhetoric to achieve their purposes, generally to persuade or convince others. Many of them taught their skills, apparently often for a fee. Due to the importance of such skills in the litigious social life of Athens, practitioners of such skills often commanded very high fees. The practice of taking fees, coupled with the willingness of many sophists to use their rhetorical skills to pursue unjust lawsuits, eventually led to a decline in respect for practitioners of this form of teaching and the ideas and writings associated with it.
Sophocles
-495-406 BCE
-was an ancient playwrite who wrote tragedies
Stoicism
-333 BC-264 BC
Stoicism is a school of philosophy, founded upon the teachings of Zeno of Citium (333 BC - 264 BC) in Ancient Greece, and which became popular in the Greco-Roman Empire.
-Stoicism teaches that self-control, fortitude and detachment from distracting emotions, sometimes interpreted as an indifference to pleasure or pain, allows one to become a clear thinker, level-headed and unbiased. A primary aspect of Stoicism would be described as improving the individual’s spiritual well-being.
Sumer
Sumer was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia
Thucydides
-Ca 460 BC-395 BCE
-was an ancient Greek historian, and the author of the History of the Peloponnesian War, which recounts the 5th century BC war between Sparta and Athens to the year 411 BC. Thucydides is considered by many to be a scientific historian because of his efforts in his History to describe the human world in terms of cause and effect, his strict standards of gathering evidence, and his neglect of the gods in explaining the events of the past.
Tigris
The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq.
The 12 Olympians
in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus.
Ur
Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu.
Warring States Period
The Warring States Period, in contrast to the Spring and Autumn Period, was a period when regional warlords annexed smaller states around them and consolidated their rule. The process began in the Spring and Autumn Period, and by the 3rd century BC, seven major states had risen to prominence
Xerxes
-485-465 BCE
Xerxes the Great was a Persian Emperor of the Achaemenid dynasty
-invaded Greece (failed)
Yellow River
2nd largest river in china
yin and yang
originate in ancient Chinese philosophy and metaphysics, which describe two primal opposing but complementary principles or cosmic forces said to be found in all non-static objects and processes in the universe.
Zhou Dynasty
-1122-256 BCE (longest lasting)
-introduction of iron
-philosophers like Confucius
-legalism
Ziggurat
A ziggurat "to build on a raised area" is a temple tower of the ancient Mesopotamian valley and Iran,
Zoroaster
-CA 1200 BCE
-was an ancient Iranian prophet and the founder of Zoroastrian religion