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144 Cards in this Set

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Change from producing goods by hand to producing goods by machine
Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in England because England had what five things?
1. Wealth
2. Raw materials (iron ore and coal)
3. Large population of workers
4. Market for the goods (the 13 colonies in england provided the needed markets
5. Land had not been hurt by warefare (since england was an island, it rarely fought on its own turf, therefore soil did not suffer
Who was hurt by the enclosure movement?
the small farmers
what was the enclosure movement?
the fencing in of public pasture land
Farms needed fewer workers becuase of
improvements in the way crops were planted
who moved to the cities to work?
the farmers that were hurt by the enclosure movement (the fencing in of public pasture land)
One of England's largest industries
textile industry
Cotton (_______ ________) were made into thread by spinning it on a spinning wheel
Without seeds
Thread was made into cloth by weavingit on a ____
loom
Made it possible to spin thread rapidly
spinning jenny
replaced the spinning wheel
the spinning jenny
Made it possible to spin thread rapidly
Spinning jenny
Invented by James Hargreaves
the spinning jenny
name the inventor of the spinning jenny
James Harsgreaves
This invention was improved by later inventors
spinning jenny
Weaving process was improved by invention of the __________-________ _______ _______ (which replaced the ________ __________)
power-operated weaving loom (replaced hand loom)
Machine for picking seeds out of cotton
Cotton gin
Invented by an American
Cotton gin
who invented the cotton gin?
eli whitney
Textile work was done in _______- now _____ were being built to house ___ ________
homes, now factories were being built to house new machines
Many early machines were powered with ______ ________
water power
This had many disadvantages
machines operated by water power
Invented the modern steam engine
James Watt
Operated by coal
steam engine
developed a an inexpensive way to make steel from iron
Henry Bessemer
________ largely replaced ________
steel largely replaced iron
Better means of transportation were needed to take _________ ___ _______ and _________ _____ ________ ________
goods to market and the materials to the factories
Name three improvements
Better roads, canals were built and steamboats
Robert Fulton in the U.S. was known for his work with these
steamboats
made it easy to sail upstream
steamboats
name another improvement besides canals, steamships and roads
railroads/locomotives
One of the inventors of the telegraph and an American
Samuel Morse
developed a telegraph code called the _ __
Morse Code
In the 1870's, he invented the telephone
Alexander Graham Bell
immigrant to the U.S.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the electric lightbulb
Thomas Edison
What was one effect of the Industrial Revolution?
Cities rapidly increased in size
Working conditions in factories and mines: name 7
1. Low pay
2. Long hours
3. Children worked
4. Unsafe conditions
5. Unhealthy conditions
6. Financial help rarely given to the injured or to their families
7. Unemployment was a constant threat
Families would live in _ or ____ room
one or two
What developed as a result of the living areas?
Slum areas
Sickness and disease were caused by 3 things
1. Inadequate sewage disposal
2. Lack of clean water
3. Lack of clean air
Grups organized by workers to seek better pay and working conditions
Labor unions
These were illegal in Europe intil the early 1800's
labor unions
economic system where businesses are privately owned and privately operated for a profit
Capitalism
From Scotland
Adam Smith
Strong believer in __ and ___
capitalism and laissez faire (Adam Smith)
Wrote the Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith
Says that in capitalism nusinesses are regulated by
two natural laws
Name the two natural laws and define them
1. Law of supply and demand: (1) Small supply +high demand equal high price (2) Large supply plus high demand equal low price
2. Law of competition: (1) Businesses will compete with each other to sell a product
(2) Competition will cause a product to have a lower price or to be of better quality
means "hands off"
laissez faire
This idea says that the government should not interfere with businesses-the two natural laws should govern
laissez faire
Believe living and working conditions culd be improced only be ablishing capitalism
Socialists
Name the two groups of socialists
Utopian and Scientific
Believed that an ideal society could be created by peacefully ablishing capitalism
Utopian socialist
Utopian socialist/British factory owner
Robert Owen
Established a town where workers were give good working and living conditions
Robert Owen
Said capitalism should be abolished only be a violent revolution
Scientific socialists
These people said their ideas were "scientific" because they said their ideas were based on _________ and _________
Scientific socialist (observation and research)
Later these people were called communists
Scientific socialists
Best known of the scientific socialists
Karl Marx
Wrote The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital
Karl Marx
He was assisted by Friedrich Engels
Karl Marx
Both were Germans
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
________'s father was a wealthy capitalist-_______ helped to support ____ because ______ rarely worked
Engel's father was a wealthy capitalist-Engels helped to support Marx because Marx rarely worked
_______ and ________ lived most of their lives in England
Marx and Engels
This German said that throughout history, classes had struggled with each other
Karl Marx
Name the two classes during the 1800's
Proletariat and the bourgeoisie
believed the __________ would organize a violent revolution and overthrow the ____________
proletariat,capitalists (marx)
The philosophy of the revolution would be
"to each according to his ability, to each according to his need"
Marx wrote: (The _______ have nothing to lose but their _____"
proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains
What did Marx write that started with" The proletarians have nothing to lose.....(fill in
but their chains. They have the world to win. Men of all working countries unite!"
Marx believed that the Revolution would begin in an industrialized nation (such as ____-_______, ______ or _________)
Great Britain, France or Germany
Who is called the "Father of Communism"?
Karl Marx
Not a government system
Capitalism
Economic and political system where all busineses are owned and operated by the government
Communism today
Economic system where the major businesses are usually owned and operated by the government
Socialism today
not a system of government
socialism today
examples of socialistic countries today-_____,____,________- and _______(to a lesser extent)
France, Germany, Canada and Britain
Author of "The Origin of Species"
Charles Darwin
This book discussed the theory of evolution
The Origin of Species
Darwin was NOT involved with this movement
Social Darwinism
Said that it was fine for superior or stronger people to take advantage of weaker ones
Social Darwinism
Four important forces were emerging: name these
1. Socialism
2. Imperialism
3. Nationalism
4. Liberalism
Conquering of foreign territory
Imperialism
Feeling of loyalty and patriotism towards one's nation of one's cultural group
Nationalism
This feeling led many nationalities that did not have a nation of their own to desire one
Nationalism
Belief that people should have (1) Greater freedoms such as speech, religion and press (2) greater voice in the government
Liberalism
What term has a different meaning today?
Nationalism
________ and _________ were called "the left"
radicals and liberals
____________ and _________ were are called "the right"
conservatives and reactionaries
extreme conservative, one who opposes changes and wants to return matters to the way they had been
Reactionary
Example of this is Klemens Von Metternich
Reactionary
Present day example of this is
the Klu Klux Klan
extreme liberal who favors drastic changes, often wants violent revolution
radical
19th century example of a radical
Karl Marx
present day example of a radical
communist
Liberals and conservatives in the 19th century had __________ views from today's liberals and conservatives
different
favor a very powerful government
liberals
tend to favor most gun control
liberals
usually oppose capital punishment
liberals
usually favor legalization of abortion
liberals
want to increase amount of money government spends on needy
liberals
says the government has become too powerful
conservatives
oppose most gun control
conservatives
usually favor capital punishment
conservatives
want to decrease amount of governemnt money given to these (the needy should get help from private organizations)
conservatives
English government in the 19th century and today have ___ branches
2
Upper house of English governemtn
House of Lords
Lower house of the English government
House of Commons
Today, the _______ ___ _____ has little power
House of Lords
At the beginning of the 19th century, few ___ and no _____ had the right to vote
men and no women
_________ reforms were slowly made
political
Name four polical reforms that were slowly made
1. most males got the right to vote
2. women did not get the right to vote until the 20th century
3. growing representatives received more representatives
4. The secret ballot was adopted
Most ____ got the right to vote by the end of the ____ century
males, 19
Women did not get the right to vote in all elections until the ___ century
20
________ _____ received more representatives in the _____ __ ________
Growing cities received more representatives in the House of Commons
In the 1800's, there were 2 major political parties in Britain-name these
1. Conservatives
2. Liberals
Period during which Victoria was the British queen
Victorian Era
Name two outstanding Prime Ministers during the Victorian Era
1. William Gladstone
2. Benjamin Disraeli
What was the political party of William Gladstone?
Liberal party
What was the policital party of Benjamin Disraeli?
Conservative Party
This country was controlled by Great Britain
Ireland
Over a million Irish died because of
a potato crop failure
Hundreds of thousands of Irish emigrated to
the United States
Who became king after Napoleon was exiled?
Louis 18
brother of Louis 16
Louis 18
The brother of Louis 16 was what kind of monarch?
limited constitutional monarch (he was old, didn't want to stir up trouble so he behaved himself)Louis 18
Ruler of France, ruled until his/her death, member of Bourbon family
Louis 18
Brother of Louis 16 and Louis 18
Charles x
who wanted to become an absolute monarch, who were his/her brothers and what type of political person was he/she?
Charles X, Louis 16 and 18, reactionary (wanted to go BACK to way things were)
Overthrown in the Revolution of 1830 and fled the country
Charles X
Nephew of Napoleon that was elected president
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Used the title Napoleon III
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
Declared himself emperor and used a title
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
By the late 1800's France had abolished the monarchy-it was never ____________
restored
Latin America refers to the countries
Mexico, Central America, South America and the West Indies
Most of Latin America had been settle by _____
Spain
Brazil was settled by
Portugal
In the early 1800's, the people in the Spanish controlled areas began ______ __ ________
fighting for independence
The two most important leaders in Latin America's fight for independence were
1. Simon Bolivar
2. Jose' de San Martin
By 1826, almost all of Latin Ameriaca had recieved its ________________
independence
________ received its independence without fighting
Brazil
What happened in 1830
Revolution in France
What happened in the 20th century?
Women got the right to vote in all British elections