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What was the alliance system in Europe 1882-1914?
Initiated by Otto Von Bismarck in 1870's he allied Germany with Austria-Hungary & Russia to avoid a 2 front war. After Bismarck retired the new Germany Kaiser allowed the reinsurance treaty with Russia to lapse

Triple Alliance formed and opened door to shifts in international relations

Entente Alliance Russia came into conflict with Austria-Hungary & Germany ambitions in the Balkans and joined with France. Britain also joins.

1914 Europe divided itself into two powerful alliance systems: Triple Entente (France, Russia and Great Britain) and Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy)
Who were the members of alliance?
Allies: Britain, France and Russia (Italy joins in 1915)

Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary & The Ottoman Empire
What even provoked the war?
June 28, 1914 Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnian terrorists, July 28, 1914 Austria declares war on Serbia. Germany promises full support (blank check)
Why did World War I happen?
Crises in the Balkans. There were 3 events that took place

1. 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed two provinces (Bosnia & Herzegovina)

2. 1912-1913 Various Balkan states defeated Turkey then fought among themselves for more territory. (expansion)

3. June 28, 1914 assassination of Archduke Ferdinand

(Imperialism, militarism, nationalism & alliances)
Who were the combatants in WWI?
Allies-- French, British and their empire (Canadians, Australians, New Zealand), Russians, Italians and Americans.

Central Powers—Germany, Austro-Hungary Empire and Ottoman Empire
What is meant by the term “year of the slaughter?”
1916 from Battle of Verdum. This was the longest battle of WWI French and Germans lose over 700k soldiers
What were some of the most significant battles of World War I?
Battle of Marne September 6-12, 1914 –German offensive stopped and Paris was saved. Hero of the battle French General Joffre. (1st Battle of the war) Battle of Verdun February-December 1916—German assault on the French fortress of Verdun. French stand firm, Germany unable to capture Verdun. French lose 542,000 German: 650,000 **this was the longest battle of WWI*** Battle of Somme July-Nov 1916—fought along Somme river in north France. To relieve pressue on Verdun. Allied lost: 614,105 German: 650,000 (killed in one day) outcome: indecisive and continued stalemate on the western front. (introduced tanks)
How did the United States become involved in World War I?
United States entered WWI due to the Zimmermann note and the sinking of the American cargo ships by German submarines
How did World War I end?
Germans ran out of money, soldiers, food and war materials. Support at home was dwindling. American armies began to arrive in Europe. The Kaiser abdicated and the new government decided that they had no choice but to surrender. War ended with an armistice at 11am on November 11, 1918.
Assess the impact of casualties in World War I
France lost 1.385 million

Translated into losing 10.5 men out of each 100 active men 9.8 out of 10.5 for Germany 5.1 out of 10.5 for Britain
What were the main points of the Versailles Treaty?
Between Germany & Allies

Germany lost territory including colonies & population

Germany army reduced to 100,000

Rhineland was demilitarized

War Guilt Clause Article #231 (forced Germany and its allies to accept full responsibility for the war) Reparations in 1921 were set at 33 billion Signed on June 28, 1919 (50 year anniversary of the Archduke's assassination)

***Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Russia was not at the conference
List a number of outcomes that make World War I a “revolutionary” event
End of empires in German, Russian, Austrian and Ottoman

Advent of Total War –everyone involved—(French men & women civilians were preyed upon by the enemy because they lived behind German lines)

Rumblings of nationalism in Africa & Asia (Europe was held on a pedestal, but people viewed them differently and did not want to mimic them)

Emergence of United States as a world power (main player on the world stage)

Emergence of Marxist Socialism (Russia—Bolshevik 1917)

Birth of Fascism (Italy) & National Socialism (Germany)

Era of disillusionment—disillusionment was about war, generational rebellion, women rebel, wear short skirts, smoke, cut hair (England, France & Germany)

Expanded roles for women (right to vote, right to work)

First step in the process of the death of the European continent (they are literally committing suicide)
What attempts were made to insure the peace for the future?
League of Nations was formed that would guarantee borders and settle conflicts that may arise in the future. Only weapons were economic sanctions and moral condemnations. Map of Europe was redrawn. Austria-Hungary was cut from 50 million to 6.5 million. War guilt-clause where Germany had to accept responsibility for the war and pay reparations
4. Who were the Bolsheviks?
Bolshevik's were a majority faction of the Leninist wing of the Russian Marxist party. After 1917 the Communist Party.

They were led by Lenin who gradually established himself as a dictator, civil war destroyed economic infrastructure and led to adopt the NEP in 1921. NEP steps back into limited capitalism and had revived the Soviet economy by 1927,

Planned uprise against provisional government, and Nov 6-7 toppled provisional government. Revolts were led in Moscow and other Russian cities. Bolshevik's considered the provisional government to be bourgeoisie. They helped with the formation of them so they could later overthrow them.
Identify Lenin
He was expelled from university for his radical thinking. Wanted to transform the Russian economy to a socialist model. Introduced the New Economic Policy. Dictator
How Bolsheviks come to power
Until 1917, Lenin's Bolsheviks remained only a minor party within Russia.
He developed theoretical and tactical principles that the Bolsheviks would later use. First, the party should be an elite, Second, contrary to what Marx had argued, the socialist revolution need not include only the industrial working class. Third, the party should firmly oppose participation in the war, Sherman, Dennis (2010-10-20).
Why Bolsheviks come to power?
Marxism had become influential among some Russian intellectuals, revolutionaries, and groups critical of Russia's tsarist autocracy toward the end of the nineteenth century. In 1898, Russian Marxists had formed the Social Democratic Party, whose principal leaders were Georg Plekhanov (1857–1918) and his disciple Lenin. When Kerensky failed to extract Russia from the war, Bolshevik influence grew, especially among the Petrograd workers and soldiers.(715)
Three principles that set them apart from other Marxist organizations
Party should be elite, highly trained and constantly purged of those not dedicated

Socialist revolution need not include only industrial working class, but should include workers and poor land hungry peasants

Third, the party should oppose participation in the war, which Lenin considered a product of imperialist rivalries and a continuing civil war among capitalists
Why was the Bolshevik revolution a contradiction of Marxism?
Marxist theory was proletariat vs. bourgeoisie and Russia was not bourgeoisie. Bolshevik's considered Provisional government to be bourgeoisie.

In July 1917, a massive popular demonstration against the provisional government erupted in that city. Most members of the Bolshevik Party supported the demonstration, though in the end the leadership did not. In these bloody July Days, the provisional government put down the demonstrators with force. The Kerensky government arrested many Bolsheviks and impelled others, including Lenin, to flee to Finland.
What was the Civil War?
Mensheviks against the Bolsheviks (Bolsheviks were successful and Lenin seized power) Cheka (secret police) hunted down enemies (Red Terror)

To buy time and free the new regime for the enormous task of refashioning Russian society, Lenin immediately opened peace negotiations with Germany. Lenin had paid a high price for peace. Nevertheless, a bitter civil war broke out in Russia following the peace with Germany. The Russian, including most of the higher army officers, launched a series of uncoordinated attacks against the Bolshevik regime. These “White” forces were aided by various other groups disaffected by the revolution. The Bolsheviks sharply suppressed any internal opposition. A secret police force—the Cheka— unleashed the Red Terror to hunt down “class enemies” and ensure internal conformity to the Bolshevik regime. The Red armies faced numerous obstacles in their all-out effort to defeat the Whites. By 1920, the Russian civil war had ended. Some four to six million had lost their lives in the civil conflict.
What was the NEP?
New Economic Policy (1921) allowed capitalist ventures, state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries. Small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit, peasants were not harassed and could hold on to small plots of land and produce surplus crops.

In 1921 he launched the New Economic Policy (NEP) , a “temporary” compromise with capitalism. This policy allowed peasants to manage their own land and sell their own crops. In addition, small-scale industries could operate under private ownership, and money and credit were restored. Although the state still supervised the economy, the NEP provided enough capitalist incentive to pull the Russian economy out of chaos.
5. What are the characteristics of totalitarianism?
A twentieth-century form of authoritarian government using force, technology, and bureaucracy to effect rule by a single party and controlling most aspects of the lives of the population. Totalitarianism common features: 1. Cult of leadership 2. Presence of a single political party 3. Concentration camps fro political prisoners 4. Secret police (In Russia, Italy, German) 5. Censorship 6. Militarism 7. Viewed as youth movements (Stalin, Mussolini, Hitler)
Identify the totalitarian regimes in Europe 1919-1939
USSR (Stalin) Italy (Mussolini) & Germany (Hitler
Be able to identify and explain the ideologies of the various totalitarian regimes
Mussolini-Italy

Fascist Ideology 1919

• Define itself negatively, anti-Marxist, anti-liberal anti-democratic, rejects idea of peace, glorifies war. Glorifies state, religion deserves state protection (it is a positive force) and fascism advocates imperialism and must expand to stay young.

Hitler-Germany

• 25 Point Program Unification of Greater Germany, Austria & Germany to live and have space to grow, wanted land and expansion, anti-Versailles, wanted German race to be a citizen, anti-semitism (no Jewish person can be member), only citizens can live here, no immigration, everyone must work, division of profit, extension of old age welfare, land reform (In Anthology Book)

Stalin-USSR

• Five Year Plan (1928) Rapid, massive industrialization of the nation. Double production, increase production of electricity, build 1500 new factories. 1932 Stalin announced all goals were met several months ahead of time.
Who was Joseph Stalin?
Joseph Stalin (1879–1953) Stalin (a pseudonym meaning “man of steel”) was born in Georgia the son of poverty-stricken ex-serfs.
Expelled from the seminary because of his Marxist views, he joined revolutionary groups.
He played a prominent role in Russia's civil war and became executive secretary of the Communist Party. In this key position, he made himself master of the all-important party machinery and pursued his drive for power.
Be able to explain the Five Year Plans and the Purges
By 1928, Stalin ended the NEP and launched the First Five-Year. The plan called for the rapid, massive industrialization of the nation. Goals included more than doubling industrial production, increasing the generation of electric
power almost fivefold, and building 1,500 new factories within five years. To help accomplish the Five-Year Plan's goals: Collectivization, it was believed, would also push peasants to become industrial workers in the cities.
The results were disastrous: Between 1930 and 1933, famine struck, taking the lives of four to six million people.
Nevertheless, Stalin finally got his way: More than half the land was collectivized within the first year, and over 90 percent after ten years. They concentrated on producer goods such as engines and tractors rather than consumer goods such as shoes and clothes.
The government fostered a sense of emergency to inspire people, especially the young, to work hard. Officials encouraged women to work both on the collective farms and in factories; by 1940, women made up almost half the labor force. Officials, minor bureaucrats, and members of the secret police ranged everywhere and monitored progress. A government ministry took control over filmmaking to make sure movies promoted revolutionary enthusiasm and favorable views of the communist state. At the end of 1932, Stalin announced that all goals of the First Five-Year Plan had been accomplished several months ahead of time.
Who was Benito Mussolini?
Benito Mussolini was a school teacher by profession who became a member of the socialist movement. Mussolini also fought in World War 1; he was wounded so he got to go home early. Mussolini broke from the socialist movement and formed the Fascist movement in 1919.
How and when did Mussolini achieve power?
Mussolini made his reputation by fighting the Socialists in Italy during the years 1919-1922. By 1922 the Fascist Party was the largest single party in the Italian legislature. Mussolini demanded power or he would march on Rome. The Italian government capitulated and named Mussolini prime minister on October 30, 1922.
What were the main points of Italian Fascism?
The main points of Italian Fascism:

Fascism defines itself negatively; that is what it opposes

Fascism is anti-Marxist, anti-liberalism, and anti-democratic.

Fascism rejects peace; it glorifies war. According to Fascism war brings out the best qualities of the human race.

Glorifies the state; the state has a will and personality of its own; it can be relied on to solve the problems of society.

Religion deserves the state's protection since it is a positive force; specifically Roman Catholicism.

Fascism advocates imperialism; the state must expand or it will die; expansion keeps a nation young and vibrant.
What was Weimar Germany?
Soon after the WW2, the Germans set up the Weimar, as a model liberal democracy. Weimar (wy'e-mar) Republic The liberal German government established at the end of World War I and destroyed by Hitler in the 1930s
What liabilities did Weimar Germany have?
Government had to pay 33 billions dept
Who was Adolf Hitler?
Adolf Hitler (1889–1945). Hitler was born to a middle-aged Austrian customs official and his much younger wife.
When World War I broke out, he e served as a courier in the German army and was decorated three times.
As for Germany's defeat at the end of the conflict, he blamed Jews and Marxists, who he felt sure had “stabbed Germany in the
What was National Socialism and what were the main points of the ideology?
Nazism (National Socialism)
Nazism, like other brands of fascism, assaulted the liberal, democratic tradition in the West. According to Nazi doctrine, the political order should be dominated by a single party headed by a dictatorial leader (Hitler) who appealed to the masses. Main points: (25 points program)

Captured the imaginations of many Germans, especially young people and displaced veterans eager to achieve some measure of social stature in the new elite. Lebensraum: living space No Jew may be a member of nation
How and why did Hitler achieve power?
The Early Year(1919 – 1933) A. Formation of the NSDAP(National Socialist German Workers Party) B. The Beer Hall Putsch(8-9 November 1923) C. The Growth of the NSDAP D. Hitler Becomes Chancellor E. Consolidation of the Dictatorship (1933 – 1935)
What type of regime did japan embrace during the 1930's?
Japan embraced a policy of ultranationalism during the 1930s.
What were Japan's goals and what were the results?
The Japanese were trying to expand their empire in East Asia. They rejected the European and American ideas of individualism, materialism, and liberalism that were coming into their country. They wanted Japan to return to its original form of independence and prosperity to be free from any American or European influences. They ignited a war with China and this led to the establishment of a puppet state called Manchuko in Manchuria. In 1937, Japan again attacked China and seized large areas of east and north China. Then in 1940, Japan allied itself with the 2 main ultranationalist powers in the West: Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. By the year 1942 Japan controlled much of east and south Asia as well as the Pacific Basin. But in the year 1945 Japan's ultranationalist policies had collapsed. That year, American planes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, defeating Japan and ending World War 2.
What were the crises 1934-1939 that led to another war in Europe?
The crises from 1934-1939: era or disillusionment, the authoritarian governments that had washed over eastern and southern Europe, political divisions within countries, break down of international affairs, civil war in Spain, and Hitler's control of Germany.
What was appeasement, who was responsible for it and what were its goals?
Appeasement was giving in to Hitler's demands in hopes of satisfying him. Britain and France were responsible for appeasement during the Munich Conference. The goals of appeasement were to satisfy Hitler in order to prevent another World War from happening.
Be able to relate Hitler's conquests in Europe.
Hitler's Rise to Power sheet

Aggression of the Dictators.
On a map, be able to identify the Hitler Empire
Map
What aggression did Japan carry out in the Pacific?
1931 – 32 – Japan attacked and conquered Manchuria and set up a puppet state, Manchuko

July 1937 – Japan launched a war against China

Japan continued its aggression throughout southeast Asia in pursuit of oil.
How did the United States become involved in the war?
American Intervention12/7/1941 – Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, an American naval baseA few days later, Germany and Italy as allies of Japan declared war on the United States.
What were the two turning points in the war?
Turning point of the war in Europe: 12/1942 – 1/1943 – the Battle of Stalingrad.

1.After Stalingrad, the Red Army began to push the Germans out of Russia

Turning point of the war in the Pacific – 6/4/1942 –Battle od Midway ended Japan's dominance in the Pacific and put the U.S. on the offensive
Where were the atomic bombs dropped in 1945 and why?
8/6/1945 – atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima (un-touch by bomb during the war) 8/9/1045 – atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki
In Europe in 1945, be able to pinpoint the areas liberated by the Anglo-Americans and the Russians
(Maps on page 756 and page 777)
Assess the overall situation in Europe at the end of World War II.
People faced starvation and homelessness. Memories of lost loved ones and homes, the horrors of concentration camps, the hardships of occupation, and the echoes of bombings haunted people. Officials and people hunted down and punished collaborators after only summary trials. Citizens shaved off women’s hair for sleeping with German soldiers and marched them through the street. The Soviets, Poles, and Czechoslovakians pushed Germans out of homes toward the west. Officials sent Soviet prisoners to forced-labor camps or to executioner for being “contaminated by anti-Soviet ideas. Western Europe looked to U.S. for loans, relief, defense, and leadership. Eastern Europe was falling under the dominance of Soviet Union. They had to find a way to deal with defeated nations without spawning new conflicts.--- pg. 767
What was the Shoa/Holocaust?
January 1942. Nazis herded Jews into ghettos in German, Polish, and Russian cities. Mobile SS squads under Reinhard Heydrich and Heinrich Himmler began the killing of Jews & Slavic prisoners of war in Poland and Russia by firing shots, and then began using vans to murder them by using gas because shooting them wasn’t quick enough, and when that wasn’t quick enough they used gas chambers to kill thousands at a time. People were sent to death camps. Victims were crowded into cattle cars where they became dehydrated, disoriented, and terrorized. The ones that survived the transit were sent to death camps to work.--- pg. 756-758
What happened at Belsen camp?
This is one of the few accounts of real footage that we have from a concentration camp. The Allies arrived at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in the spring of 1945.They had to bury the bodies in huge pits because there were so many people. Many of these people in the Bergen-Belsen camp had lice. There were no gas chambers in Bergen-Belsen, because this was not a killing camp. It was a concentration camp
13. What is the United Nations and why was it created after the end of World War II?
United Nations (UN): a United Nations organization was founded in 1945 by fifty-one nations to promote international peace and cooperation.
Conveys the hopes of its founders for peace and international cooperation.
14. What were the major outcomes of World War II?
The leaders of Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union shaped postwar Europe in two wartime conferences. They agreed to accept only unconditional surrender by Germany and Japan and to require complete restructuring of the aggressors’ governments. Germany, which had proved so powerful in two world wars, would be disarmed and divided. The Soviet Union, having suffered so much from Germany’s massive invasion, demanded and received pledges of territories on its western border as well as reparations from Germany.
What happened to the European continent after World War II?
In 1945, Europe lay prostrate as some 50 million refugees drifted across the land and countless people faced starvation and homelessness.
Outrage, fear, and violence continued to stalk Europe. Many resistance fighters and Soviet troops executed surrendering Nazi soldiers on the spot.
The Soviets, Poles, and Czechoslovakians pushed 13 million ethnic Germans out homes in Eastern Europe toward the west.
Jews who had managed to survive often found their homes destroyed, and they still suffered from flagrant anti-Semitism. What was the Cold War?
Western Europe looked to the United States for loans, relief, defense, and leadership.
The main challenge facing them was to find a way to deal with defeated nations without spawning new conflicts.
15. What was the Cold War?
The global struggle between alliances headed by the United States and the Soviet Union during the second half of the 20th Century.
What are some highlights of the Cold War?
• Ideological struggle between USSR and United States. Communism vs. Capitalism (Cold War because it was not a full blown War)
• Iron Curtain-Churchill Speech 1946
• Truman Doctrine 1947
• USSR explodes atomic bomb 1949
• Korean War 1950-1953
• End of Cold War
How and when did the Cold War end?
Ended in 1991 with the decline of the Soviet Union
Berlin Wall comes down 1989
Fall of USSR December 25, 1991
16. What did the “fall” of the Berlin wall lead to?
Communist lost power, East and West Germany reunified, an internal coup deposed Stalinist ruler in Bulgaria, Ceausescu ordered troops to fire on demonstrators in Romania which led to a bloody revolution which ended with him and his wife being executed, Stalinist regime collapsed, freeing of Eastern Europe by nations cutting binds to USSR & enacted Democratic reforms & introduced capitalism--- pg. 816
How was Germany recreated in 1990?
Gorbachev persuaded Communist Party’s Central Committee to eliminate the constitutional monopoly on political power and he created a new presidency- separate from the communist party hierarchy. He called for new elections. He democratized Soviet politics and undermined power of the communist party.--- pg. 817
When did the USSR collapse?
Late 1991???? --- pg. 818
17. What was the Marshall Plan?
A package of economic aid to European nations designed to strengthen them and tie them to American influence, was launch by George Marshall--- pg. 778
What was the European Economic Community?
Definition: The E.E.C. or Common Market founded in 1957 to eliminate tariff barriers and begin to integrate the economies of western European nations.

European Economic Community of 1957
Formed January 1, 1958
6 members originally Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxenbourg and the Netherlands.
Then came growth of EEC, there were 9 members (3 new) Britain, Ireland and Denmark effective January 1, 1973
Greece joined effective January 1, 1981 made 10 members
12 members effective as of January 1, 1986 Spain and Portugal
Created Treaty of Rome, proposed to eliminate tariff barriers, cut restrictions on flow of labor and capital, and integrate the economies of the member nations--- pg. 788
What is the European Union?
Definition: EU is the community of European nations that continued to take steps toward the full economic union of much of Europe during the late twentieth century.
The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union under its current name in November 1993. (From European Economic Community)
January 1, 1995 new Euro used by 12 nations
May 2004 10 new members (Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Cyprus and Malta) 25 nations’ total
January 1, 2007 Bulgaria and Romania join. 27 nation’s total
What happened to the EU in May 2004?
May 2004 10 new members (Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, Slovakia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Cyprus and Malta) 25 nations’ total
How many member states belong to the EU and what has it achieved to this date 2012?
To date 27 nations are members of the EU and it roughly has 500,000,000 in population (7.3% of the world’s population) and as the #1 GDP in the world.
18. Define de-colonization.
Decolonization definition: The loss of colonies by imperial powers during the years that followed World War II.
It was a big event that started in 1945 due to nationalism
Why did decolonization happen and where did it happen?
India (Ghandi) Independence gained 1947
Asia – Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh) Independence gained 1945
Africa- Gold Coast renamed Ghana (Kwame Nkrumah) Independence gained 1957
Movement for independence
Later Libya 1951 and Algeria 1962 from France
Angola 1975 from Portugal, Portugal last European power to leave Africa
Reason: First, the two postwar superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, preferred to exert their might by indirect means of penetration—ideological, economic, and military—often supplanting previous colonial rulers; both the United States and the Soviet Union took up positions opposed to colonialism. Second, the mass revolutionary movements of the colonial world fought colonial wars that were expensive and bloody. Third, the war-weary public of Western Europe eventually refused any further sacrifices to maintain overseas colonies.
What even signaled the beginning of the decolonization movement?
1945. The end of the Second World War was a watershed in that it set in motion "decolonization," i.e., the full undoing of the world's empires, and marked the beginning of the emergence of what became called "The Third World. In addition, European powers were not able to hang on to these colonies without force, money, or bloodshed and none of them were willing to do so.
Identify Kwame Nkrumah and explain his significance in Africa after 1945.
Leader and African nationalist saw Africa through movement for independence (Ghana-Gold Coast)
He was the first President of Ghana and First Prime Minister of Ghana. Advocate of Pan-Africanism
1957 Ghana becomes first territory in sub-Saharan Africa to become independent.
How did each of the European colonial powers exit Africa after 1957?
Gold Coast won independence through elections and was renamed Ghana 1960’s Nkrumah was overturned in coup to dictatorship
Congo (Belgian) biggest colony in Africa, gave them 6 months to get ready and the result was disaster. Led to civil war, bloodshed and divisions. Fear that power would fall under the Soviet Union they collaborated (Prime Minister of Congo-Lumumba) with the UN. Belgium made hasty withdrawal
Portugal resisted the trend of decolonization. When government changed in Portugal is when Angola received independence in 1975.
What were some of the problems faced by the newly created Africa nations?
Newly independent nations were often left with illogical borders drawn arbitrarily by 19th century European imperialists, depleted. Economies and internal political divisions that drew in Cold War agents from both sides to exploit the chaos. In Africa, ethnic conflict drew into bloody civil wars (Nigeria). The newly freed countries were left without internally generated political institutions, instability, bloodshed and rule by military strongmen often took place. In Asia, political and religious difference caused war in the years after liberation. Growing and impoverished populations lived under the threat of hunger and in bad weather starvation. Droughts in Africa brought famine and death to tens of thousands. Most depended on wealthier countries for goods and aid.
19. What happened to Japan after 1945?
Japan experienced decolonization. They were occupied and forced to adopt a democratic regime by America. $$ Money helped recover from WWII.
Japan had emerged from World War II defeated on sea and land, the shocked victim of history’s first two atomic bombs used for military purposes. Because the United States by far had played the major role in the defeat of Japan, it refused to share the occupation and governing of the Japanese islands with its former allies.
The U.S. quickly promoted political democratization and used financial aid to help Japan rebuild and conform to U.S. policies. In this way, Japan, like West Germany, would become a link in the Cold War containment “chain” that the U.S. was forging around the Soviet Union. The strategy paid off handsomely. During the 1950s and 1960s, Japan became a firm ally and used its modern industries and skilled labor to make an astounding economic recovery that surpass even that of West.
How did Japan achieve its economic miracle in the 1970’s, 1980’s, & 1990’s?
Which industries dominated the recovery of Japan?
Especially during the Korean War, American monies helped the Japanese economy recover from WWII. In addition, during the 70’s, 80’s and 90’s was the #1 economic power in Asia. Areas of manufacturing, cars, electronics, television.
Since the 1960s, Japan had grown into a major economic power. Year after year, this island nation enjoyed the world’s largest favorable balance of trade. By the 1980s, it boasted the world’s second-largest gross domestic product.
A giant in automobile production and electronics, Japan replaced the United States as the world’s topmost creditor nation. Although reversals brought Japan’s economic momentum to a virtual standstill during the 1990s, and even a decline during the 2001 and 2002 world economic slowdown, the nation still led the world in per capita gross domestic product.
20. What was Kuomintang?
• China 1899-1920 changed from imperial system to republic, founder was Dr. Sun Yat-Sen
• Movement was called Kuomintang and stood for 3 things 1)nationalism 2) democracy in China and 3) economic livelihood

• Kuomintang was the movement started by Dr. Sun Yat-sen. Kuomintang stood for 3 things:
• 1. Nationalism- a strongly united China
• 2. Democracy- China would eventually have a constitution and a democratic regime, but not for the moment because China was not ready
• 3. Economic livelihood- economic prosperity for all, but especially the peasantry who were Promised Land.
Identify: Dr. Sun Yat-Sen
Dr. Sun Yat-sen was a western educated doctor who launched a revolution aimed at freeing China from foreign exploitation and modernizing its society. He is the founder of the Chinese Republic.
Identify: Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek)
Jiang Jieshi was the successor to Dr. Sun Yat-Sen. General Jiang Jieshi devoted all of his efforts to destroying the Communists in China. He was the leader of the Nationalist party in China.
Identify: Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong was the leader of the Communist party in China.
What was the Long March?
The Long March was when the Communists were encircled by Jiang Jieshi and were forced to undertake a 6000 mile march to a safe haven. When Mao Zedong’s followers reached the mountains of Yenan only 7000 of the original 100,000 men had survived.
What was the Chinese Revolution of 1949?
In 1949, the Communists defeated Jiang Jieshi and his government. Jiang and his followers fled to Taiwan. China became the 2nd state to undergo a Communist revolution. Mao promptly proclaimed the People’s Republic of China and joined in an alliance with the Soviet Union. With Soviet aid, he began the daunting task of industrializing and communizing China.
Why was the Chinese Revolution a contradiction of Marxist ideology?
It was a contradiction because in China there is no bourgeoisie or proletariat. Most of the people in China are peasants.
What was the Great Leap forward?
In 1958, Mao Zedong sought to form a strictly Chinese “brand” of communism with the Great Leap Forward. During this China’s huge population was set to building irrigation dams and ditches, steel mills, factories, railroads, schools, and hospitals at a frantic pace. In 1959, an alternating cycle of droughts and flooding struck, producing one of the deadliest famines in history; some 20 million Chinese may have died of starvation and malnutrition over the next 3 years.
Why did China seek a relationship with the United States in 1972 and what has happened to China since?
By 1970, Chinese leadership recognized the backwardness existing in China and realized that in order to compete in the modern world technology was necessary. The most advanced technologically nation in the world was the United States, and China began to pursue that expertise. Since then China has replaced Japan as the U.S. prime trading partner in Asia. Today, China has the largest economy in the world replacing Japan.
Who was Deng Xiaoping?
Deng Xiaoping was Mao Zedong’s successor. Deng went against traditional Marxism and allowed the development of capitalism with in China. Deng died in 1997 but his policies still linger in China today. Deng Xiaoping is the father of China today. All of his successors have kept his capitalist policies.
How did Deng Xiaoping revolutionize China?
Deng went against traditional Marxism and allowed for the development of capitalism within China.
What is the status of China today?
We do not know what China is, because it is not a democracy. China is a rapidly growing economic power.
21. How was the state of Israel established?
At the end of World War 1, Britain supported the idea of a homeland for Jews under the Balfour Declaration of 1917. The British tried to mediate this situation and the result was the U.N. dividing Palestine into a Jewish state and a Palestinian Arab state with a neutral zone that included Jerusalem. The state of Israel was proclaimed by the Jews on May 14, 1948.
What has characterized the relationship between Israel and its Arab neighbors since 1949 and the outcome?
Violence has characterized this relationship since 1949; both sides have resorted to terrorism against each other. There have been several Arab Israeli wars over the years. The result of these wars is that Israel has gained territory at the expense of the Arabs. The outcomes of the relationship between Israel and its Arab neighbors are that the Arab nations refuse to recognize the state of Israel, the advent of Palestinian/Arab terrorism, and the founding of OPEC in 1961 and the use of oil as a weapon.
Be able to define Sunni Muslims
Sunni Muslims are the majority of Muslims; they trace their ancestry to the prophet of Mohammed who died in 632 AD.
Be able to define Shiite Muslims
The origins of the Shiites are traced to Ali, Mohammed’s cousin and son-in-law, who became caliph. Ali, became caliph in 656 AD, but was removed in 661 AD in a power struggle.
What is meant by the term “Islamic Fundamentalism?”
The goal of Islamic fundamentalism was to return to the original Islam that sought a state committed to religious values and the enforcement of those ideas as its priority. Islamic fundamentalists condemn Westernization and the secularization of life in their countries; they demanded a return to traditional symbols of their conservative views, such as the veil that they required women to wear in public.
What is the overall situation in the Middle East today?
The Arab world is ruled today by royal houses that are considered corrupt and anti-democratic. The majority of the Arab population is uneducated and unemployed.
How did the United States become involved in the Middle East and what is the outcome of that involvement?
The United States became involved in the Middle East after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The United States answered the attacks by declaring war against terrorism. Drawing on the sympathy and support of many nations, the U.S. military launched a massive aerial assault on al-Qaeda strongholds in Afghanistan, as well as on the Taliban, the radical fundamentalist regime that ruled the mountainous nation.
The outcomes of the U.S. involvement in the Middle East include:
The United States initiated a preemptive war, based on the assertion that Iraq had imminent plans to attack the United States, or, even worse, a “preventive war,” based on the possibility that Iraq might attack sometime in the distant future. In these relatively nonthreatening circumstances, such a war violated long-established rules of international relations and dashed ambitions of those hoping to strengthen international barriers to the outbreak of wars.
The U.S. not only failed to win important UN and international support for the war but also appeared to punish those who disagree with its foreign policies- including longtime major allies such as France and Germany. The United States appeared to favor a kind of unilateralism in which the world’s only superpower pursued its own interests regardless of its allies’ views and interests.
The way that the U.S. government justified its invasion of Iraq and what many in the world saw as the destructive mishandling of the occupation that followed diminished the sympathy and support for the United States that had been offered after the September 11 attacks. Moreover, the bloodshed and political turmoil that reigned in Iraq year after year during the presence of U.S. led coalition forces served to increase the regional influence of Iran, still ruled by a fundamentalist regime that now embarked on a policy to develop its own atomic resources.
22. What was the theme of The Clash of Civilizations published in 1996?
Christian, democratic, capitalistic view said West would be up against Islamic/Arabic world
Written 1996 by Huntington, was as if he predicted the 9-11 attacks and further disputes
What does Niall Ferguson argue in his new book Civilization: “The West and the Rest?”
Written 2011. Book foresaw 21st Century as China and the Western World losing out in life, as we know