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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Joe Turner
- vocalist
- known as the "Boss of Blues"
- worked in Territory Jazz bands in KC
Louis Jordan
- vocalist/ saxophonist
- innovator of the jump band
decline of the Big Band...
- direct effect of war
- no sholack for records, went to war effort
T-Bone Walker
-guitar/ vocalist
- 1st to popularize electric guitar in R&B
Muddy Waters
- originator of the "Chicago Blues" sound
- major influence on rock bands (especially British)
William "Hoss" Allen
- white DJ
- ignored mainstream white labels
- played small independent labels
Allen Freed
-heard hoss and coined the term "Rock and Roll"
New Orleans
- major contributor to crossover R&B music
- emphasis on (piano/bass/sax) vs guitar styles of Memphis + Chicago
- bass lines derived from the rich cultural mix of New Orleans population
Fats Domino
- ambassador of New Orleans sound
- offered white kids an easy first step into the world of black music
- "Ain't that a Shame"
Cosimo Matassa
- ownder of J+M records studio (only studio in New Orleans)
Dave Bartholomew
- collaborations with Fats Domino
Little Richard
- direct opposite of Fats Domino
- total EXTROVERT "bronze liberace"
- has written some of rock's greatest songs
- "Long Tall Sally," "Tutti Frutti"
Difference btwn Fats and Richard
- calm, refined VS crude, high-strung
- never strained VS always strained
- polished, easy, charm VS out of control
Early R&R in Chicago
- the Delta blues became amplified in Chicago
- Chess records begam in the late forties by Leonard and Phil Chess
Bo Diddley
- known for the "Bo Diddley Beat"
- known for distinctive rhythm patterns
- beat can be tracked to "hambone" beats and the "ring shouts" of slaves
Chuck Berry
- helped establish R&R as a musical form in itself
- established the guitar as THE rock instrument
- the first great rock lyricist/poet
- broke through the color barriers/played and sold to an intergrated audiences
Sam Phillips
- Memphis
- ownder and operator of Sun Studios
- important figure in development of R&R
Elvis Presley
- was the 1st rock hero (the KING of R&R)
- Elvis was the singer, not the song
- forced R&R down mainstream's throat
- made it possible to talk about R&R as more than a passing fad for R&B
Elvis Rockabilly Traits
- "slapback" echo...a trait of Sun Records
Elvis with RCA
- Col. Tom Parker became his new manager
- reaches national status w. "Heartbreak Hotel"
- Elvis simply defined the rock image of the fifties
Dave Bartholomew
- collaborations with Fats Domino
Little Richard
- direct opposite of Fats Domino
- total EXTROVERT "bronze liberace"
- has written some of rock's greatest songs
- "Long Tall Sally," "Tutti Frutti"
Difference btwn Fats and Richard
- calm, refined VS crude, high-strung
- never strained VS always strained
- polished, easy, charm VS out of control
Early R&R in Chicago
- the Delta blues became amplified in Chicago
- Chess records began in the late forties by Leonard and Phil Chess
Bo Diddley
- known for the "Bo Diddley Beat"
- known for distinctive rhythm patterns
- beat can be tracked to "hambone" beats and the "ring shouts" of slaves
Chuck Berry
- helped establish R&R as a musical form in itself
- established the guitar as THE rock instrument
- the first great rock lyricist/poet
- broke through the color barriers/played and sold to an intergrated audiences
Sam Phillips
- Memphis
- ownder and operator of Sun Studios
- important figure in development of R&R
Elvis Presley
- was the 1st rock hero (the KING of R&R)
- Elvis was the singer, not the song
- forced R&R down mainstream's throat
- made it possible to talk about R&R as more than a passing fad for R&B
Elvis Rockabilly Traits
- "slapback" echo...a trait of Sun Records
Elvis with RCA
- Col. Tom Parker became his new manager
- reaches national status w. "Heartbreak Hotel"
- Elvis simply defined the rock image of the fifties
- created acceptance for black music and opened doors for black artists
- wanted to be an actor, so sang ballads and lost his edge
Decline of Elvis
- went to Las Vegas
Rockabilly defined
- invented by Elvis, "That's All Right"
- frenzied mix of country, blues, gospel, and pop
- classic rockabilly was almost entirely the product of Sun Records and Sam Phillips
Carl Perkins
- became known as the "King of Rockabilly"
- remained true to his style
Jerry Lee Lewis
- paralleled to Little Richard
- became known as "The Killer"
- viewed as Elvis' rival
Rock; changes in the music
- late 50's transitional period btwn. initial R&R and teen idal period
- newcomers had clean-cut images, broadened appeal, sexual overtones faded, replaces by hummable tunes
Ricky Nelson
- The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet
- helped his career BUT also put R&R music in America's living rooms
- "LA Rockabilly" style in some of his music
Buddy Holly
- last of the 50's giant
- plane crash, 2/3/59
- points music toward 1st Rock Band
- 1st major white artist to WRITE and PRODUCE his music
- 1st to use the studio as instrument
- explored the technique of sound and production
- popularized the Fender Stratocastor
Buddy Holly and the Crickets
- prototype for a self-contained rock band
- 2 guitars/ 1 bass/ drums
The Everly Brothers
- from Nashville
- beginning of the use of 2 singers
Eddie Cochran
- early development of the power chord
Style Traits of Doo-Wop
- emphasizes melody above rhythm
- name "doowop" didn't come til 70's
- reflected the increase commercial possibilities for black music
- star groups: The Platters, Coasters, Drifters
- mainly "one-hit wonder" groups
Early Important Transition Groups
- The Orioles
- The Ravens
The Platters
- one of the most successful crossover acts in the 50's
The One Shots
- few doo-wop groups managed to make it onto the charts or sustain careers
- many groups become the one hit wonders
- individuality was erased by the group
Soul Pioneers
- Ray Charles
- Sam Cooke
- Jackie Wilson
Ray Charles
- not really R&R music
- has drawn from the entire spectrum of music (R&B, jazz, swing, gospel, C&W, showtunes)
- church based music was an influence on Aretha Franklin and James Brown
Sam Cooke
- one of the most graceful voices in soul music
- very different from Ray Charles
- voice has a more floating quality then Ray Charles
Jackie Wilson
- enormous range and sheer power--great instrument of R&R
- sweeping register leaps, rich vibrato, falsetto breaks was his trademark
- energetic and agile showman
"The Death of Rock & Roll"
Feb. 3, 1959 (the death of Buddy Holly)
Teen Idols
- most successful, Bobby Vinton
- Frankie Avalon, Bobby Valine
Philadelphia and American Bandstand
- city was the most successful teen idol "machine"
- engine of the idol machine was Am. Bandstand
Brill Building Pop
- songwriters dominated industry, not the singers
Aldon Music
- was as symbol for the popular music in NY
- pop singers rarely wrote their own music/always needed new songs
- songwriters were usually grouped in pairs
Goffin and King
- most prolific hitmakers at Aldon
- their variety and ability to change with the times kept them in business
Sedaka and Greenfield
- less varied in style/ sound since they were writing for Sedaka
The "Girls" Groups
- a sound and style rather than an individual voice or image
- success linked to a specific producer
- projected HIS vision rather than the groups vision
The Chantels
- important model for the groups that followed
The Shirelles
- patterned after The Chantels
- caused 2nd wave of white girl groups
The Chiffons
- "He's So Fine"
THe Marvelettes
- Motowns only true pop girl group (Supremes outgrew the image)
- "Mr. Postman"
The Shangri-Las
- "The Leader of the Pack"
The Angels
- "My Boyfriends Back"
Spector Records-Phil Spector
- "little symphonies for kids"
- invented the role of the modern producer
The Wall of Sound
- Phil Spector
- use of many instruments
- anyone around the studio maybe have ended up on the recording
- large list of studio musicians were used--the "wrecking crew"
The Ronettes
- inspired Spectors best works
- became the "bad girls of pop"
The Righteous Brothers
- Spector's last great success
- "You've Lost That Loving Feeling"
- "Unchained Melody"
Duane Eddy
- developed a style known as "twangy" guitar
- formed a model for the surf band guitarists
1960's Instrumental Groups (Surf Music)
- surf music was primarily an instrumental style
-lack of vocals allowed expirementing w. sounds on the guitar
- guitar had virtually disappeared as lead instr. in early 60's pop
- reestablished guitar as central role in music
The Ventures
- solidified the two guitar/bass/drum line-up
- not originally a surf band/favorite w. surf crowd
Dick, Dale and the Deftones
- king of the surf guitar
- Dale's Deftones spawned many garage bands around SoCal
The Beach Boys
-became America's answer to the Beatles
- combo of the Four Freshman and instr. surf music
- Brian Wilson was the quiet genius of group
- influenced by Phil Spector's "wall of sound"
Pet Sounds (1966)
- became Brian's master project
-critically considered a masterpiece and one of the R&R important album
- the album became a major influence on the Beatles (Sgt. Pepper)
- remaining songs and show Wilson's obsession w. isolation and his insecurities
Good Vibrations (1966)
- Wilson's answer to the poor outing of Pet Sounds
- labeled as a psychadelic tune
- Wilson's finest hour as a producer