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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Versailles-Washington System
An international order formed under the leadership of the victorious powers. It was created to protect the interest of the United States and Britain. This system was to abolish bilateral treaties and create multilateral treaties. Many treaties were issued that was supposed to help prevent war. This system was supposed to maintain public order.
What treaties were created under the Versailles-Washington System?
Four Power Treaty
The Five Power Pact and the Nine Power Treaty
What was the Four Power Treaty and who were the four powers?
Replaced bi-national security arrangements with a wearker collective agreement for mutual consultation.

U.S.,U.K., Japan and France
The five power pact
established millitary equalibrium in the Pacific by stipulating that Briain and the U.S. would not build fortifications east of Singapore or west of Hawaii, and set a ratio of of capital ships between Japan's one ocean fleet. It was to make Japan secure in it's own waters.
The Nine Power treaty of 1922
liquidated all the existing treaties between the powers and China and replaced them with the Open Door principles. It returned Shandong back over to the Chinese.
The February 26 Incident
It was an attempted sudden overthrow of the gov’t in Japan launched radical ultranationalist Kodaha faction of the Imperial Japanese army. Troops primarily from the 1st Infantry Division tried to secure the center part of Tokyo. The government was to be replaced with a new general sympathetic to their cause. The believed that the government needed to pay more attention to the trouble of the domestic economy. The Emperor signed a command ordering the army and nave to suppress the revolt and to evict rebels from their positions. Eventually the coup collapsed.
Long March
Started when the Chinese Communist party had to fleet attacks made by Chiang Kai Shek who was ordered to do so by the German general. Guamindang troops wanted to attack the Communist. The Guamindang were able to shrink communist territory. The Long March was a march by The Red Army. The red army marched for 40 days until they were attacked at Xiang. The Red Army were fleeing Communist. The Red Army’s goal was to reach Yanan. It took the 368 days to get there. Surviving troops combined with other Communist troops to strengthen their army.
The Twenty-One Demands
January 18, 1915. This was and ultimatum that Japan gave to the Chinese president. It said that Manchuria and Mongolia was to be given to Japan for exploration and colonization. Japan wanted to guide China’s military and commercial affairs. Japan also wanted to guide China’s military. Demand to control China’s policy was dropped due to the United States intervention. The others were accepted. The treaties were not ratified by the Chinese. This event was important because it lead China to refuse to sign the Versailles treaty. This lead the May Fourth Movement.
Kita Ikki
Plans for reorganization of state. He wanted to develop a united society under imperial rule. He said that Japan should prepare for "total war." This took place during the rightist movement. Leader of the imperial way faction. He wrote about national crisis unleashed by capitalist and bureacratic explotation and leading to extreme inequalities in society that he feared would take away strength and energy from the people. He advocated overthrowing the leadership with a coup d' etat. He wanted to suspend the Meiji constitution in the name of the emperor so that the people will be liberated by the constraints imposed by a bureaucratic policy. He also wanted to establish universal manhood suffrage. Redistrubute surplus land to the needy. He wanted to reforce the retreat of the West and revive all of Asia.
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident
Conflict between Chinese and Japanese troops. Japanese used the Marco Polo Bridge as a way to invade China. It marked the beginning of the Second Sino Japanese War. The Japanese had occupied Manchuria in 1931 and set up a puppet government in Manchukuo with Puyi as the emperor. Manchukuo was considered an independent country. It was declared independent from China. Japanese set up a puppet government with attempts to occupy the whole China. The Japanese invaded Chahar province. Areas north of the Great Wall and North of Beijing ended up in Japanese hands. Japanese troops bombed China while troops crossed the bridge. The KMT forces outnumbered the Japanese troops. They were able to make them stop and negotiate which resulted in the fall of Beijing and Tianjin.
The Xian Incident
It ended hostility between the Communist and Nationalist groups in China. It started after the Long March. Chiang Kai-shek the Nationalist leader wanted to get rid of the Communist before dealing with the Japanese. Zhang who was a communist presented eight demands to Japan to end the anti-communist campaign and arrested Chang. This caused an attack National generals in Nanjing threatened to attack two generals in Xian and launch an attack against communism. The Communist Zhou Enlai Zhou told them to let Chiang continue because it he didn’t China would be in chaos. Zhang was arrested and sentenced to house arrest.
Which event was a result of the great depression in Japan?
The Manchurian Incident
Taisho Democracy
A liberal movement and an era of party governments. During this time period Kato Komei came on to the scence.
Rise of democratic currents and decline in military service. Military expenses dropped. Military training was introduced in the higher and lower schools. Training units set up for youth who did not continue their education.
Who was Kato Komei?
Prime Minister in Japan from 1924-1926. Passed the Universal manhood suffrage bill 1925. Passed the Peace prservation law: abolished private property. A national health law and a labor disputes law enacted. Reformed the house of peers.
The May Fourth Movement
5000 students made a demonstration against the verdict of the Versailles Peace Conference. Socio-political Intellectual movement trying to achieve national independance, individual emancipation, creation of a new culture.