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63 Cards in this Set

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Albigensian crusade
The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade (1209 - 1229) was a 20-year military campaign initiated by the Roman Catholic Church to eliminate the heresy of the Cathars of Languedoc.

When Innocent III's diplomatic attempts to roll back Catharism met with little success, he declared a crusade against Languedoc, offering the lands of the schismatics to any French nobleman willing to take up arms.
Averroes
Ibn Rushd , Arabic (ابن رشد), known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. He was born in Cordoba, Spain, and died in Marrakech, Morocco. His school of philosophy is known as Averroism.
Avignon
The city is probably best known for its Palais des Papes (Palace of the Popes), where the Popes lived for much of the 14th century.
ayllu
Ayllu were the basic political unit of pre-Inca and Inca life. These were essentially extended family groups but they could adopt non-related members, giving individual families more variation and security of the land that they farmed.
Aztecs
The Aztecs is a term used for certain Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican peoples of Central America. Sometimes it refers exclusively to the Mexica people, founders of the island city Tenochtitlan. Sometimes it also includes their two principal allies, the people of Tetzcoco and Tlacopan, with whom they built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. And sometimes it is used about all the Nahua peoples.
battle of Hastings
was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman conquest of England. The location was a hill approximately six miles north of Hastings, on which an abbey was subsequently erected.

The battle took place on October 14, 1066, between the Norman army of Duke William of Normandy, and the Saxon army led by King Harold II. Harold was killed in the battle; traditionally, it is believed he was shot through the eye with an arrow. Although there was further Saxon resistance for some time to come, this battle is seen as the point at which William gained control of England.
Bodhisattvas
a being who is dedicated to attaining Nirvana.
Boniface VIII
Boniface VIII put forward some of the strongest claims to temporal, as well as spiritual, supremacy of any Pope and constantly involved himself with foreign affairs. In his Bull of 1302, Unam Sanctam, Boniface VIII proclaimed that it "is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman pontiff", pushing papal supremacy to its historical extreme.
Carolingian Renaissance
The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival occurring in the late eighth and ninth centuries, with the peak of the activities occurring during the reigns of the Carolingian rulers Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. During this period there was an increase of literature, the arts, architecture, jurisprudence, liturgical and scriptural studies.
Charlemagne
was King of the Franks from 768 to his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800, in an attempted revival of the Roman Empire in the West.
Divine Comedy
written by Dante Alighieri between 1308 and his death in 1321, is widely considered the central epic poem of Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest works of world literature ever.
Feudalism
Feudalism refers to a general set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility of Europe during the Middle Ages, revolving around the three key concepts of lords, vassals, and fiefs.
Forbidden City
The Forbidden City was the Chinese Imperial palace from the mid-Ming Dynasty to the end of the Qing Dynasty. It is located in the middle of Beijing, China. It now houses the Palace Museum.
Genghis Khan
he became one of the most significant and successful military leaders in history. He united the Mongol tribes and founded the Mongol Empire, (1206 – 1368), the largest contiguous empire in world history.
Gothic
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. Beginning in twelfth century France, it was known as "the French Style" (Opus Francigenum) during the period, with the term Gothic first appearing in the Reformation era as a stylistic insult. Its characteristic features include the pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttress.
Granada
is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain
Grand Canal
is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. It passes through the cities of Beijing and Tianjin and the provinces of Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The oldest parts of the canal date back to the 5th century BC.
Great Western Schism
was a split within the Catholic Church (1378 - 1417). By its end, three "popes" (or one holy Pope and two unholy antipopes) claimed to be the true Bishop of Rome. Lacking any real theological or doctrinal underpinnings, being rather driven by politics, it was ended by the Council of Constance (1414).
Hanseatic League
The Hanseatic League was an alliance of trading guilds that established and maintained a trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea, to a certain extent the North Sea, and most of Northern Europe for a time in the Late Middle Ages and the early modern period, between the 13th and 17th centuries.
Huitzilopochtli
As well as being a god of war and a sun god, he was also a god of death, young men, warriors, storms, and a guide for journeys.
Hundred Years War
The Hundred Years' War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. It was fought primarily over claims by the English kings to the French throne and was punctuated by several brief and two lengthy periods of peace before it finally ended in the expulsion of the English from France, with the exception of the Calais Pale.
Incas
was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America. The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in Cuzco. The Inca Empire arose from the highlands of Peru sometime in early 13th century.
Innocent III
Pope Innocent III (c. 1161 – June 16, 1216), born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was pope from January 8, 1198, until his death.

As pope, Innocent III asserted the absolute spiritual authority of his office, while still respecting the temporal authority of kings.
Investiture Controversy
was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. It began as a dispute in the 11th century between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Gregorian Papacy concerning who would control appointments of church officials (investiture
Jacquerie
The Jacquerie was a popular revolt in late medieval Europe that took place in northern France in 1358, during the Hundred Years' War. The revolt centered in the Oise valley north of Paris. (peasants vs. nobility)
Johann Gutenberg
was a German goldsmith and printer, who is credited with inventing movable type printing in Europe (ca. 1450) and mechanical printing globally. His major work, the Gutenberg Bible, also known as the 42-line bible, has been acclaimed for its high aesthetic and technical quality.
John Hus
was a Czech religious thinker, philosopher, reformer, and master at Charles University in Prague. His followers became known as Hussites. The Roman Catholic Church considered his teachings heretical, and Hus was excommunicated in 1411, condemned by the Council of Constance, and burned at the stake.
kamikaze
"divine wind"
khalifa
is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation.
Khanate of the Golden Horde
khanate established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucassus after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. At its peak the Golden Horde's territory included most of European Russia from the Urals to the Carpathian Mountains, extending east deep into Siberia.
Khubilai
"the last of the Great Khans"...grandson of Genghis Kahn
Magna Carta
is an English charter originally issued in 1215. Magna Carta was the most significant early influence on the extensive historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law today. Magna Carta influenced many common law and other documents, such as the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights, and is considered one of the most important legal documents in the history of democracy.
Mandarin
a group of dialects of spoken Chinese, or more specifically, its standardized version
Manoralism
is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic power in a lord supported economically from his own direct landholding and from the obligatory contributions of a legally subject part of the peasant population under his jurisdiction.
Marco Polo
A popular kids game that is played in a pool. The person who is "it" screams Marco, and those who are trying to get away must scream Polo.He was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione
Maya
noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems.
Ming Empire
was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. It was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Hans, before falling to the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty
nomadism
are communities of people that move from place to place in the deserts or winter-climated places, rather than settling down in one location.
Ögödei
was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire by succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun. Like all of Genghis' primary sons, he participated extensively in conquests in Western China and Central Asia.
Olmec
were an ancient Pre-Columbian people living in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, roughly in what are the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
Ottoman Turks
The Ottoman Turks were the subdivision of the Ottoman Muslim Millet that dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. The ruling class is covered under Ottoman Dynasty.
Prince Henry
Prince Henry the Navigator was the third son of King John I of Portugal, the founder of the Aviz dynasty, and of Philippa of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt. Henry encouraged his father to conquer Ceuta (1415), the Muslim port on the North African coast across the Straits of Gibraltar from the Iberian peninsula, with profound consequences on Henry's worldview: Henry became aware of the profit possibilities in the Saharan trade routes that terminated there and became fascinated with Africa in general, with the legend of Prester John, and with expanding Portuguese trade.
Reconquista
The reconquest of spain from the muslims.
Romanesque
having roman qualities
Scholasticism
Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means "that [which] belongs to the school", and was a method of learning taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. Scholasticism originally began to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology. It is not a philosophy or theology in itself, but a tool and method for learning which puts emphasis on dialectical reasoning.
Shinto
Shinto is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. It involves the worship of kami (神, kami?), spirits.
Song Empire
was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 and 1279 AD. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms era, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue paper moneyb[›] and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy.c[›]
St. Thomas Aquinas
Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Catholic priest in the Order of Preachers, a philosopher and theologian in the scholastic tradition,
Summa Theologica
is the most famous work of Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–1274). It was intended as a manual for beginners as a compilation of all of the main theological teachings of that time.
T’ang Empire
The dynasty was founded by the Li (李) family, who seized opportunity in the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire.
Tawantinsuyu
The Quechua name for the Inca empire
tax farming
ax farming was originally a Roman practice whereby the burden of tax collection was removed from the Roman State to private individuals or groups. In essence, these individuals or groups paid the taxes for a certain area and for a certain period of time, and then attempted to cover their outlay by collecting money or saleable goods from the people within that area.[1]
Temüjin
Ghengis Kahn
Teotihuacán
was, at its height in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. The name Teotihuacán is also used to refer to the civilization or culture that this city was the center of, which at its greatest extent included much of central Mexico.
Tiahuanaco
is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in Bolivia. Tiwanaku is recognized by Andean scholars as one of the most important precursors to the Inca Empire,
Tikal
is the largest of the ancient ruined cities of the Maya civilization
Timur the Lame
as a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of Western and central Asia,
tributary system
A tributary or tributary state is a state, colony, region, or people who pay tribute to a more powerful, suzerain state.
ulama
refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies.
usury
was defined originally as charging a fee for the use of money. This usually meant interest on loans, although charging a fee for changing money
Wat Tyler
was the leader of the English Peasants' Revolt of 1381. Knowledge of Tyler's early life is very limited, and he is known to history mostly through the records of his enemies. Historians believe he was born in Essex, but they are not sure when, and it is unclear when he crossed the Thames Estuary to Kent, where he would lead the revolt.
William of Ockham
was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher, from Ockham, a small village in Surrey, near East Horsley. He is considered, along with Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus, one of the major figures of medieval thought and found himself at the center of the major intellectual and political controversies of the fourteenth century.
yasa
Genghis Khan's law code