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100 Cards in this Set

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Why did Alexander Hamilton believe the nation needed to pay its debts?
1. Alexander Hamilton believed the nation needed to pay its debt because he saw that the nation must assure other countries that it was responsible about money. These nations would do businesses with the U.S. and trust the U.S. with money.
Why did Washington advise the nation to remain neutral in world affairs?
Washington advised the nation to remain neutral in world affairs because any agreements with foreign nations might work against U.S. interests and leave the U.S. in a tangle of mess.
How are Pinckney's Treaty and the Whiskey Rebellion related?
The Whiskey Rebellion and Pinckney’s Treaty are related because the Whiskey Rebellion deals with rebellion against taxes while Pinckney’s Treaty gave people the right not to pay customs duties.
Why did farmers choose to make whiskey from their grain?
Farmers chose to make whiskey from their grain because it was easier to transport than grains and wheat, it was used for trade, they could sell it for a high cost, and they didn't have to pay taxes on it.
How did the rise of political parties affect the election of 1796?
The rise of political parties (Democratic-Republicans: Jefferson and Madison; Federalists: Hamilton) affected the election of 1796 because those two parties were opposite on their views of how to run the nation and the federal government. The Federalists favored strong national government, national bank, economy based on “industry”, and interpreted the Constitution loosely; they fear mob rule and their supporters were lawyers, merchants, manufacturers, and the clergies. The Democratic-Republicans favored limited national government, strict interpretation and economy based on farming. They were for the common people, opposed the national bank and feared rule of one person or a powerful few.
What was a foreign policy issue faced by Presidnet Washington?
A foreign policy faced by President Washington was the French Revolution. He had to decide whether to support the French, because the French was their ally for the American Revolution, or the British, because the British is their main trading partner; he finally chooses to remain neutral.
A person who favors a loose construction of the Constitution would also do which of the following?
A person who favors a loose construction of the Constitution would favor strong national government, the national bank, the economy based on “industry”, and interpret the Constitution loosely; they fear mob rule and oppose the French Revolution.
Why did Hamilton want to place tariffs on foreign goods?
Hamilton wanted to place tariffs on foreign goods to pay for the national debt.
In which document did jefferson and Madison use the political theory of states' right to fight the Alien and Sedition Acts?
Jefferson and Madison used the political theory of states’ rights to fight the Alien and Sedition Acts in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions.
What group was the target of the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798?
The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 targeted aliens-immigrants who were not yet citizens.
What is Judicial Review?
11. The Judicial Review states that the Supreme Court has the final say in interpreting the Constitution.
What were Jefferson's instructions to Lewis and Clark on how to deal with the Native Americans they would encounter?
12. Jefferson’s instructions to Lewis and Clark on how to deal with the Native Americans they would encounter was to establish good relations with them.
What was significant about the Battle of New Orleans?
13. The significance about the Battle of New Orleans was that it was won by General Andrew Jackson, but it was unnecessary. It helped him win the presidency. Also, it increased American nationalism.
Jefferson chose not to list his presidency in the epitaph on his tombstone. How does this reflect his political philosophy?
14. Jefferson chose not to list his presidency in the epitaph on his tombstone; this reflects his political philosophy because he believed in a modest role for the central government is reflected in the changes he made during his presidency.
What were the U.S.-British issues before the War of 1812?
15. The U.S.-British issues before the War of 1812 were that the British began to clamp down on U.S. shipping because they didn’t want Americans to provide their enemies with food and supplies. After the U.S. threatened to take action, the British had a partial blockade and used impressment - kidnapping of American sailors to work on British ships.
What was an important legacy of the War of 1812?
16. An important legacy of the War of 1812 is that there was increased American patriotism, weakening of the Native American resistances, the growth of the U.S. manufacturing, and the U.S. proved that it could defend itself against the mightiest military power of the era.
Why was napoleon willing to sell Louisian to the U.S. for so little money?
17. Napoleon was willing to sell Louisiana to the U.S. for so little money because he needed the money for his military stuff.
What furthered Tecumseh's efforts to save his people's land?
18. What furthered Tecumseh’s efforts to save his people’s land was that he believed that unity between the different Native American tribes would win the war against the U.S.
What special contribution did Sacagawea make to the Lewis and Clark expedition?
19. The special contribution that Sacagawea made to the Lewis and Clark expedition was that she was their guide who had great language skills and knowledge of geography.
Who saved important items before the British burned the White House?
20. Dolly Madison saved important items before the British burned the White House.
Which invention did Samuel F. B. Morse create, and what was its effect?
21. Samuel F. B. Morse created the telegraph and its effect was that people could communicate with each other over long distances without having to travel.
What idea of Eli Whitney transformed manufacturing by making eachcopy of a manufactured items exactly alike?
22. Eli Whitney used the idea of interchangeable parts to transform manufacturing by making each copy of a manufactured item exactly alike.
What inventions did the most to pull different regions of the nation together?
23. The inventions telegraph and steamboat did the most to pull different regions of the nation together.
What developments caused manufacturing to grow in the U.S. between 1800 and 1840?
24. Factories and interchangeable parts caused manufacturing to grow in the U.S. between 1800 and 1840.
Why were most of the nation's early factories located in New England?
25. Most of the nation’s early factories were located in New England because they had willing labor force, access to the ocean and ships, and they had the needed water power from rivers.
What encouraged the "Lowell girls" to keep working in the early years of the Lowell mills despite the deafenting noise and the long hours?
26. The “Lowell girls” were encouraged to keep working in the early years of the Lowell mills despite the deafening noise and the long hours because of the good pay and education.
About which region did Monroe specifically direct part of his Monroe Doctrine?
27. Monroe specifically directed his Monroe Doctrine toward Europe.
What is the "American System"?
28. The “American System” is a plan introduced in 1815 to make the U.S. economically self-sufficient. It included 3 main parts: establish a protective tariff, establish a national bank, and improve the country’s transportation systems.
What was the Missouri Compromise?
29. The Missouri Compromise was a series of laws enacted in 1820 to maintain the balance of power between slave states and free states. It stated that Missouri would be a slave state and Main would be a free state. Slavery was banned from Louisiana Territory north of Missouri’s southern border.
What modes of transportation improved the nation's economy?
30. Modes of transportation such as roads and canals improved the nation’s economy.
A person who put the interests of his or her state or region ahead of what was best for the rest of the nation was demonstrating what attitude?
31. A person who put the interests of his or her state or region ahead of what was best for the nation was demonstrating sectionalism.
After the Supreme Court ruled in favor the the Cherokees, Jackson said, "John Marshall has made his decision... now let him enforce it." What did he mean?
32. After the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Cherokees, when Jackson said, “John Marshall has made his decision…Now let him enforce it.” He meant that it wouldn’t matter what Marshall said because Jackson was the president; the Judiciary branch interprets while the president gets to enforce.
What distinguished the Cherokee from other tribes?
33. The Cherokee were distinguished from other tribes because the adapted to white customs, had their own written language, had their own newspaper, and their own Constitution which was based on the U.S. Constitution.
What changed Calhoun into a chammpion of states' rights?
34. Calhoun was a champion of states’ rights because he was from South Carolina and he believed the South was being oppressed by Jackson and the Tariffs of Abominations; he concerned for the economic and political well-being of South Carolina and the South and had rigid views.
What was the central principle of Jacksonian democracy?
35. The central principle of Jacksonian democracy is the concept of majority rule; it’s the idea of spreading political power to all the people and ensuring majority rule.
Why was Sequoya an important figure in the 1800s?
36. Sequoya was an important figure in the 1800s because he invented the Cherokee language and hoped that by gaining literacy, his people could share the power of whites and keep their independence.
Why did Andrew Jackson dislike the national bank?
37. Andrew Jackson disliked the national bank because he stated that it was unconstitutional—a monopoly and favored the few at expense of the many. He also had bad financial experience with the bank.
What did Andrew Jackson's practice of rewarding his political backers become known as?
38. Andrew Jackson’s practice of rewarding his political backers became known as the spoils system—the practice of winning candidates giving government jobs to political backers or supporters.
Why did the doctrine of nullification become popular in the South?
39. The doctrine of nullification became popular in the South because they could use it to nullify the Tariff of Abominations.
What were the reasons why the Cherokees were forced to move west?
40. The Cherokees were forced to move west because gold was found in Cherokee land. Jackson viewed them as conquered subjects and thought they had two choices: adopt white culture and become citizens of the U.S. or move into the Western territories. He didn’t believe that they could have their own governments within the nation’s borders.
What did Stephen Austin and Brigham Young have in common?
41. Stephen Austin and Brigham Young were both leaders who followed after something that they believed in, and they created a colony
What motive was common to most Americans who went west?
42. The motive for most Americans who went west was the cheap, fertile land.
What action provoked the Mexican War?
43. The ambush of several American soldiers when Zachary Taylor stationed troops on the northern bank of Rio Grande provoked the Mexican War.
How did the gold rush affect the population of California?
44. The gold rush affected the population of California because the numbers rose sharply.
Who commanded the Texas forces at the Battle of San Jacinto?
45. Sam Houston commanded the Texas forces at the Battler of San Jacinto.
What were the results of the California gold rush?
46. The results of the California gold rush were that California became a state, the U.S. expands, and the huge migration caused economic growth that changed California permanently.
What national issue was the reason some people opposed the War with Mexico?
47. Slavery was the reason some people opposed the War with Mexico.
What was true of mountain men?
48. Mountain men survived as being tough and resourceful. They were usually alone and trapped small animals such as beavers. They were connected economically to the businessmen who bought their furs.
What were the reasons why the admission of Texas as a state was delayed for nearly ten years after Texans gained their independence?
49. The admission of Texas as a state was delayed for nearly ten years after Texans gained their independence because if they joined, the slave state would outnumber the free states; also, many people feared that annexing Texas would lead to war with Mexico.
What group of Americans sought religious freedom in the West?
50. The Mormons sought religious freedom in the West.
What special contribution did Susan B. Anthony make to the women's movement?
51. Susan B. Anthony built the women’s rights movement into a national organization.
For what reason is Harriet Tubman famous?
52. Harriet Tubman was famous because she led slaves to freedom and was never caught.
What effect did the immigration of the mid-1800s have on the U.S.?
53. Immigration of the mid-1800s affected the U.S. with rapid urban growth.
What did the women's rights movement and the abolitionist movements have in common?
54. The women’s rights movement and the abolitionist movements both were trying to gain rights.
Why were Sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglass effective abolitionist speakers?
55. Sojourner Truth and Frederick Douglass were effective abolitionist speakers because they had experience of slavery.
How were persons with mental illness treated before the reform efforts of Dorothea Dix?
56. Before the reform efforts of Dorothea Dix, persons with mental illness were chained and beaten and they received no treatments.
What were the main reasons for Europeans to come to the U.S.?
57. The main reasons for Europeans to come to the U.S. were freedom, economic opportunity, and abundant land.
What are examples of a push factors for immigration?
58. Examples of push factors for immigration are population growth, agricultural changes, crop failures, industrial revolution, religious and political turmoil.
Why did immigrants from Ireland tend to settle in cities?
59. Immigrants from Ireland tend to settle in cities because they had little money or no savings, so they settle in the port cities where the ships docked.
What principle did civil disobedience share with nullification?
60. Civil disobedience and nullification before refuse to accept and follow laws that they feel are not right. Civil disobedience is peaceful refusal to accept laws on considers unjust while nullification is to reject a laws one considers unconstitutional.
What were the circumstances surrounding transcendentalism?
61. The circumstances surrounding transcendentalism are violence isn’t the answers, and the spiritual world is more important than the physical world.
Why did some Americans oppose immigration?
62. Some Americans oppose immigration because they felt that immigrants were too foreign to learn American ways while others felt that immigrants would outnumber natives.
Why did Stanton and Mott organize the Seneca Falls Convention?
63. Stanton and Mott organized the Seneca Falls Convention because they decided it was time to demand equality for women.
What was true about the spread of information and knowledge in America in the mid-1800s?
64. The spread of information and knowledge in America in the mid-1800s happened through print. Americans received more information about how they should lead their lives. Cheaper newsprint and the invention of the steam-driven press lowered the price of a newspaper to a penny and hundreds of new magazines also appeared.
How did the Supreme Court add to the tensions over slavery in the 1850s?
65. The Supreme Court added to the tensions over slavery in the 1850s because of their decision in the Dred Scott case; it favored the South and angered the North.
What were the main points of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
66. The main points of the Kansas-Nebraska Act were the Nebraska territory was divided into Nebraska and Kansas. People voted, using popular sovereignty, to see if these two new states would become a slave state or not.
The belief that the people living in a region should decide key issues is?
67. Popular sovereignty is the belief that the people living in a region should decide key issues.
Northerners were unhappy about the fate of which two people?
68. Northerners were unhappy about the fate of John Brown and Dred Scott (and Charles Sumner)
Why did John Brown lead an attack on Harpers Ferry?
69. John Brown led an attack on Harpers Ferry because he wanted to inspire slaves to fight for their freedom.
What caused the Kansas Territory to be called "Bleeding Kansas"?
70. Kansas Territory was called “Bleeding Kansas” because a civil war broke out in Kansas that lasted for three years between proslavery and antislavery people.
What impact did uncle Tom's Cabin have on the slavery controversy?
71. Uncle Tom’s Cabin affected the slavery controversy by exaggerated evils of slavery which angered the South.
How did the Supreme Court apply to the Bill of Rights to the slavery issue?
72. The Supreme Court applied the Bill of Rights to the slavery issue by saying that the bill of rights did not apply to slaves because they were considered property; to ban slavery in the territories would violate the slaveholders’ property rights protected by the Fifth Amendment.
What was the issue of slavery in the Lincoln-Douglass debates?
73. The issue of slavery in the Lincoln-Douglas debates was legalizing slavery in all the states.
How did Southern leaders justify secession?
74. Southern leaders justified secession by saying that they had voluntarily joined the Union, so they also had the right to leave the Union.
What event triggered fighting between the North and the South?
75. The Election of 1860 then the secession of the South then the first shot at Fort Sumter triggered the fighting between the North and the South.
What advance in technology made the Civil War much deadlier than earlyer American Wars?
76. Advancements in technology made the Civil War much deadlier than earlier American wars because of minie balls that contributed to casualties, the rifles that gave more accuracy and speed, and the ironclads that were a vast improvement over wooden ships.
What was one Northern strategy for winning the Civil War?
77. The Northern strategy for winning the Civil War is the Anaconda Plan—to capture the Mississippi river and cut the Confederacy in two, to capture Richmond, and to have a naval blockade.
What advantage did the North have over the South in the Civil War?
78. The advantages the North had over the South in the Civil War were their huge advantages in manpower and resources. They had more people, most of the factories, more railroad mileage, and almost all the naval power and shipyards. In addition, they had President Abraham Lincoln.
Why was the North's capture of New Orleans a serious blow to the South?
79. The North’s capture of New Orleans was a serious blow to the South because only a 150-mile of the Mississippi remains in the South, and the Confederacy is basically cut into two.
What were the "border states" in the Civil War?
80. The “border states” in the Civil War were Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. They were slave states that bordered states in which slavery was illegal.
Why were Northerners most eager to go to war?
81. Northerners were most eager to go to war because they wanted adventure and glory, an escape from boredom, and the recruitment money. They also did it because of their loyalty to the Union.
Why did Southerners refer to their cotton crop as "King Cotton"?
82. The Southerners referred to their cotton crop as “King Cotton” because it was important to the world market and the South grew most of cotton for Europe's textile mills.
What battle resulted in the bloodiest day in all of American history, with neither side having gained any ground?
83. The Battle of Antietam resulted in the bloodiest day in all of American history, with neither side having gained any ground.
How did the South's economy put it at a disadvantage in the Civil War?
84. The South’s economy put it at a disadvantage in the Civil War because it was mainly farming, and when battles struck in the South, many farmlands were destroyed, so they couldn't make money from their crops and they ran short on supplies for themselves.
Who were most likely to become a Civil War soldier?
85. Farmers were most likely to become a Civil War soldier.
What made army life difficult?
86. Unsanitary army camps, bad shelters, poor hygiene, and shortage of food supplies made army life difficult.
What battle was considered the turning point of the Civil War?
87. The Gettysburg Battle was considered the turning point of the Civil War.
Why did Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation free slaves only in the South?
88. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves only in the South because it was seen as a military action, and the Constitution didn’t give him the power to free slaves within the Union.
Who urged Lincoln to free the slaves as a war tactic, as well as a moral isue?
89. Frederick Douglass urged Lincoln to free the slaves as a war tactic, as well as a moral issue.
What was true of the 54th Massacusetts Regiment?
90. The 54th Massachusetts Regiment was one of the first African-American regiments organized in the North. It led a heroic attack on Fort Wagner in South Carolina.
What was the effect of the 13th Amendment?
91. The effect of the Thirteenth Amendment was the slavery was banned in the U.S.
Appomattox Court House is important because it was..?
92. Appomattox Court House was important because it was where Lee surrendered to Grant.
How did The U.S. government finance the Civil War?
93. The U.S. government financed the Civil War with income taxes and green-backs.
What is meant by the statement that William Tecumseh Sherman waged total war?
94. William Tecumseh Sherman waged total war because he fought against not only against enemy troops, but he also destroyed anything that supported them.
What did 'Stonewall" Jackson's death mean for the South?
95. “Stonewall” Jackson’s death meant a loss of a good and valuable officer for the South.
Southern slaves aided the northern war effort by..?
96. Southern slaves aided the Northern war effort by hurting the Southern economy by resisting to work or slowing their work down. Some slaves led rebellions and others joined the Union Army.
Lincoln urged the country to "bind up the nation's wounds" in his...?
97. Lincoln urged the country to “bind up the nation’s wounds” in his Second Inaugural Address.
After teh 54th Massachusetts Reginment fought bravely at Fort Wagner,...?
98. After the 54th Massachusetts Regiment fought bravely at Fort Wagner, its reputation grew heroically and more African-Americans joined the Union Army.
Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House because..?
99. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House because he knew that continuing to fight back was hopeless.
How did the Civil War affected the North?
100. The Civil War affected the North by changing the way people thought about the country, causing the national government to expand, and changing the economy. New industries such as steel, petroleum, food processing, and manufacturing grew rapidly.