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139 Cards in this Set

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Spanish explorers who established control over American lands
Conquistadors
used to describe the intentions of the spanish in america
"God, Gold and Glory
Wroet about his voyages. America was named after him
Amerigo Vespucci
First European to see the Pacific Ocean when he and his party crossed the __________
Isthmus of Panama, Vasco de Balboa
Led an expedition to circumnavigate the globe, killed in the Phillipines. Only 1 ship survived
Ferdinand Magellan
Destroyed the Aztecs
Hernando Cortez
While looking for the mystical fountain of youth, claimed Florida for Spain
Juan Ponce de Leon
searched for the seven cities ofGold
Francisco de Coronado
discovered the Grand Canyon
Francisco de Coronado
Began a journey through what is now GA, AL, MS, AK AND OK
Hernando de Soto
army destroyed the Incan civilation in Peru
Juan Pizarro
The Spanish called their empire in Central, South and North America
New Spain
first permanent European settlement in American
St. Augustine
Spain colonized New Spain by using the _________ __________ which gave large tracts of land and the Indians who lived on it to a single individual
encomienda system
spanish/native americans
mestizos
spanish born in europe
peninsulares
first to explore and claim part of N. America for England
John Cabot
english pirates
"Sea Dogs"
most successful english pirate
sire francis drake
reason for the Spanish Armada to invade England
Sire Francis Drake
first effort at englsih colonization was led by
Sire walter raleigh
led settlers to Roanoke island
Sir walter raleigh
named his colony "Virginia"
Sir walter raleigh
what date did the expedition of 140 settlers sail trhough chesapeake Bay, up the James River and build a fort at Jamestown
1607
How many colonists wre alive by the next spring?
38
Became leader of the Jamestown Colony
Captain John Smith
traded with the Indians and instituted strict discipline
John Smith
Virgina saved by ________ _____'s successful cultivation of tobacco
John Rolfe's
began headright system
the virginia company
explain the headright system
settlers received 50 acres for every "head" or person transported
Virgina Company allowed settlers to elect representatives to an assembly called the _________ ____ ________
House of Burgesses
The first elected governmental bodyin America
House of Burgesses
Financial disaster
Virginia Company
a disgruntled western settler
nathaniel bacon
organized army to punish the Indians
Nathaniel Bacon
Threatened to take over the government
Bacon
example ofa frequent conflict between wealthy eastern settlers and poorer western settlers
Bacon's Rebellion
this rebellion died when the leader didi
Bacon's rebellion
first english settlers to come to america for religious reasons
Pilgrims
were separatists
Pilgrims
had received permission from the _______ _______ to settle in america
Virginia Company
Where did the pilgrims land, what was the boats' name and what was the year
Massachusetts, mayflower, 1620
before leaving the ship, what did the pilgrims sign?
The Mayflower Compact
With whose help did the pilgrims survive the winter?
Squanto
group of religious leader that attempted to purify, or reform the Church of England. They were persecuted
Puritans
able to obtain a charter and formed the
massachusetts bay colony
came to america to build an ideal community which they called
"a city upon a hill" Puritans
immediately made efforts to democratize the coloy
John Winthrop
about 20,000 englishmen came to America in what is known as
the Great Migration
Capital of Massachusetts
Boston
In America, the Puritans became known as the
Congregationalists
The Puritans considered what a sin?
Idleness
Helped to contribute to the rapid growth and success of the New England colonies
Puritan Work ethic
wrote the first american constitution
Thomas Hooker
what was the name of America's first written constitution?
Fundamental order of Conneticut
Intolerant of other religions or opinions
Puritans
The puritan government was a type of
theocracy
government ruled by church leaders
Theocracy
questioned many puritan beliefs, including the need to separate church and government
Roger Williams
what colony did Roger Wiliiams found
rhode island
this colony would tolerate other religions
rhode island, roger williams
became a haven of outcasts who could not live under the strict rule of the Bay Colony
Rhode island
disputes between the puritans and the indians rose over two issues-
land and religion
in conneticut, english colonists killed over 400 indians in the _________ war
Pequot
the native americans and new england colonist waged a war for ever a year called
King Phillips War
King Charles 1 gave land north of Virginia to
--------- ---------- --------- -------- as a haven for persecuted english _________
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
was known as a proprietary colony
maryland
explain proprietary colony
colony completely under the control of an individial or individuals
guaranteed freedom of religoin to all christians
Toleration act of 1649
William Penn decided to make his colony a haven for
Quakers
believed that there was no need for ______ ______ _______ , opposed to ___, and refused to ____,_____ or _______
high church officials, opposed to war, and refused to pay taxes, perform military service or swear oaths
stressed "_____ _____"
brotherly love
capital of pennsylvania
PHILLY!
PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH
Germans
became a leading colonial seaport
charlestow
became separate colonies of norht and south carolina
Carolina
georgia was founded by
James Ogethorpe
last of the 13 original colonies
ga
created as a debtor colony and to serve as a buffer between the _________ and the hostile indians and spaniards in Florida
Georgia, Carolinas
cultural and trading center of the GA colony
savannah
the dutch claimed a region along the hudson river based on the discovery of the river by
henry hudson
called new netherlands by the dutch
region along the hudson river
trading posts were established at fort orange, present day albany, and at
New Amsterdam, present day new york
Had aquired manhattan island for about 24 worth of beans from Indians
Dutch
King Charles II gave his brother ______, the ______ ____ _______ a large of chunk of land that included New Netherlands
James, the Duke of York
later named new york
new amster dam
_______ _______ was created from NY hwne the Duke gave alnd to two of his friends
new jersey
introduced the lob cabin to America
da sweedes
explain salutory neglect
beneficial neglect: they are making money off the colonies without doing anything
the head of any colonial government was the _____, who represented the king of England
governor
laws for the individial colonies were passed by ___________ called _________ that were elected by the colonists
legislatures,assemblies
these assemblies even controlled the ________'s salary
governors
placed the colonies of New York, New Jersey, Conneticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire under the control of Governor Edmund Andros
Dominion of New England
gave Edmund Andros broad powers to rule the colonies
the placing of the colones by the dominion of new england under the control of Governor Edmund Andros
______________________ in England brought William and Mary
The Glorious Revolution
held that the nations wealth and power was measured by its share of the world's gold and trade
mercantilism
became the major policy of all major European countires
mercantilism
wanted to be able to ______ more goods than she ________
export more goods than she imported
purpose of these laws were to secure for England all profits of colonial trade and strengthen English shipping and sea power
Navigation Acts
name the Navigation Acts
1. transport their goods only in British or colonial ships
2.to send certain enumerated goods such as tobacco, sugar, indigo and fure only to britain
3.to rbing colonial imports fromother European countries to England first, then reload them, pay a tax on them, and then carry them to the colonies in British ships
4.restrict colonial manufacture goods that England already manufactured such as woolen cloth and fur hats
many colonists, especially in New England, did not like these trade laws
New England
smuggling was common during these laws, since they were not enforced
Navigation Acts
most disobeyed navigation act
Molasses act
began to look fora Northwest passage
French
a water passage through N. America that would lead to the Far East
Northwest Passage
explored the ST. Lawrence Rover to present day Montreal
Jacques Cartier
founded the first permanent french settlement in America in Quebec
Samuel de Champlain
what lands did France claim for New France?
all the land from Canada to Gulf of Mexico from the Rockies to the Appalchian
Unlike England, France did not allow_____ _________ _________ ______
religious dissenters to come to America
were mostly interested in the fure trade with the indians
the french
this war ended in a stalemate
king george's wars
the french began to build forts from what to what?
west of Appalachians, south to ohio river
21 year old surveyor
George Washinton
groups of civilians who volunteer for miltary service in times of emergency
militia
led a force of 150 men to protect a forst that VA was building near present day pittsburgh
george washington
before washinton arrived, the french took control of the fort and renamed it what?
Fort Duquesne
before washinton arrived, the french took control of the fort and renamed it what?
Fort Duquesne
after brifely fighting the French, Washington had to retreatfrom his hastily built
fort necessity
name the vs. of the french and indian war
french and indians vs. English and British
redoubled the war effort when he became English Prime minister
William Pitt
captured and renamed Fort Pitt
Fort Duquesne
captured the french stronghold at Quebec
French
at the end of the french and indian war, England recieved ______ and the _____ and ______ ________ from the french
ohio, canada and the mississippi valley
from spain England gained
florida
spain was then given
louisiana
cost of the war had been enormous for the ______(what war)
britishb (french and indian
attempt to drive the English out of the Ohio Valley
Pontiac's Rebellion
chief of the Ottawa
Pontiac
this was passed to ease relations with the indians
english passed the proclamation item of 1763
american colonists resented this new order
Proclamation Item of 1763 because it reserved appalachian area to indians
what did colonists continue to do in the area reserved for Indians?
move in
what did american colonists gain by the result of the war?
self confidence and military experience
rose to the call for colonial union, what did he present and what was his name
Benjamin Franklin, Albany Plan, this was rejected
became king of england and decided to take a more active role than his predecessors , this ended the period of _________ _________
King George III, ended the period of salutory neglect
general search warrants made by english custon agents to search for smuggled goods
writs of assisstance
leading colonial spokesmen claimed that these were illegal based on their rights as english subjects
writs of assisstnace
reasoned that the colinsts hould pay for their own defense
George Glenville
reduced the existing tax on colonial imports of sugar and molasses from the spanish and french west indies but called for strict enforcement
Sugar act
upset because this would redece their profits if collected
new england merchants, shop owners and rum distillers