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41 Cards in this Set

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What were COLUMBUS' MOTIVES for his "Enterprise of the Indies" (his voyages)?
TRADE and CONQUEST. Didn't care about creating a colonial community.
What were SPAIN'S MOTIVES for going to the New World?
The 4 G's:
GOLD(wealth)
GLORY (power & prestige)
GOD (spreading Christianity)
GROUND (expanding Spanish lands)
How did such large groups of MIXED ANCESTRY get started in New Spain?
Only 10% of Europeans who came were women; Spanish men MARRIED INDIAN OR AFRICAN WOMEN brought as slaves.
What were CONQUISTADORS?
Spanish MILITARY SERVICE. (Ordinary men could get rich and become nobles through serving in the military.)
What were MISSIONARIES?
People from the church who went to the New World to CHRISTIANIZE INDIGINOUS PEOPLES.
How did LAWS get made in the Americas?
By Spain's COUNCIL OF THE INDIES (group of King's advisors)
What was the ECONOMIENDA?
Spain's LAND GRANT POLICY - you get land but have to care for the Indians who work it and Christianize them.
Why did the Spanish Colonial Lords get away with MISTREATING THE INDIANS in spite of the laws of the Economienda?
The COUNCIL OF THE INDIES was IN SPAIN (too far away to enforce the laws).
What was the ECONOMIENDA in REALITY?
INSTITUTIONALIZED SLAVERY
What replaced the Economienda in the 1600's?
HACIENDA SYSTEM
How much did SILVER and GOLD did Spain ship from the Americas? How much did it increase the supply of silver in Europe?
16,000 TONS of SILVER
2,000 TONS of GOLD
TRIPLED the silver TWICE!
How much did the INDIAN POPULATION DECLINE as a result of the Spaniards?
99%
(From 8 million to 100,000 in Spanish held lands)
What did Las Casas call this population decrease?
GENOCIDE (it was actually the greatest demographic disaster in history of the world - greater than the Holocaust)
What were the CAUSES of Indian DEPOPULATION?
1. DISEASE ("virgin soil epidemics")
2. STARVATION (stolen food, destroyed economies)
3. REDUCED BIRTHRATES (exhausted women either couldn't get pregnant or didn't want to).
Describe the GOVERNMENT of New Spain.
VICE ROYALTIES (estates) ruled by VICEROYS.
PROVINCES (subdivisions) ruled by GOVERNORS)
TOWNS ruled by ALCALDES.
What were the major roads in the Spanish Empire called?
EL CAMINO REAL
Name the VICE ROYALTIES (?)
1493 - HISPANIOLA
1508 - PUERTO RICO
1509 - JAMAICA
1511 - CUBA
1592 - TRINIDAD
Ponce de Leon
PUERTO RICO and FLORIDA
searched for FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH
DIED in FLORIDA (shot by Indians)
Diego Valazques
CUBA
Massacred ARAWAKS
Bartolome de Las Casas
SOLDIER under Valaquez
LAND GRANT and SLAVES
Became PRIEST, freed slaves, gave up land
PROTECTOR OF INDIANS 50 years
Hernan Cortez
LAW STUDENT turned CONQUISTADOR
HISPANIOLA to YUCATAN (Mexico)
MALINCHE (Marina) Slave turned interpreter
DESTROYED AZTECS, TENOCHTITLAN, built MEXICO CITY
Legend of Quetzalcoatl
AZTEC GOD of CIVILIZATION
Appointed bearded WHITE RULER in past.
WILL RETURN IN REED 1 TO RULE
Why did Montezuma, ruler of the Aztecs, believe Cortez was Quetzacoatl's ruler?
He ARRIVED in REED 1.
La Noche Triste
Several hundred Spaniards and 4000 Indians KILLED while STEALONG AZTEC TREASURES
How did Cortez defeat the Aztecs.
REATTACKED (after La Noche Triste) when SMALLPOX had devastated Aztecs.
What became of the great Aztec city of Tenochtitlan?
Totally DESTROYED BY CORTEZ and became MEXICO CITY, hub of Spain's American empire.
Vasco Nunez Balboa
ISTHMUS OF PANAMA to PACIFIC OCEAN
Francisco Pizarro
PERU
Tricked Incan ruler, ATAHUALPA, invited him then SLAUGHTERED his 6000 INDIAN COMPANIONS, IMPRISONED ATAHUALPA.
GOVERNOR of PERU
Founded LIMA, Capital city
Panfilo Narvaez
CUBA to FLORIDA PANHANDLE (blown off course). His group ENSLAVED BY INDIANS.
LEGEND OF SEVEL GOLD CITIES OF CIBOLA
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico (Navarez' SAILOR AND SLAVE) escaped Indians and wrote about it in .
Vasquez de Coronado
Explored INTERIOR (today's ARIZONA & NEW MEXICO.
Found ZUNI PUEBLO, sent to QUIVIRA (land of silver) by Indians to get rid of him. Was only today's WITCHITA, KANSAS. NO GOLD
Hernando de Soto
Took 600 MEN to TENNESEE, ARKANSAS, MISSISSIPPI RIVER. So CRUEL, Indians SENT HIM AWAY. His men BURIED HIM SECRETLY. Only 300 MEN GOT HOME.
Rodriquez Cabrillo
CALIFORNIA COAST - NO GOLD!
Garcia Lopez de Cardenas
GRAND CANYON - NO GOLD!
Juan de Onate
Founded SAN JUAN (now SANTA FE) on thriving Indian town.
Creoles
People of SPANISH ancestry BORN IN NEW SPAIN
Mestizos
People of MIXED SPANISH and INDIAN ancestry. Largest group, much poorer than other classes.
Indians and enslaved Africans
LOWEST, POOREST CLASS
Pope's rebellion
Indians, led by Indian named POPE, FORCED SPANISH OUT of Mexico for 10 YEARS.
Mercantilism
Spanish ECONOMIC SYSTEM of TRANSATLANTIC TRADE
What were the two basic ideas of mercantilism?
1. Colonies BENEFIT PARENT COUNTRY (Spain told them what and how to buy and sell)
2. Spain BUILT WEALTH by EXPORTING MORE THAN IMPORTING.