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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was a central policy of the Republican Party and accounted for much of its appeal?
Agricultural expansion.
Who were the three republicans from Virginia?
Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Served two terms each as president.
Why was it called the "Virgina Dynasty"?
Because they reversed many Federalist policies compelling the "Revolution of 1800" (named by Jefferson)
What precipitated the War of 1812?
Western issues such as Indian policy and territorial disputes with Spain and Britain.
Who was Thomas Jefferson?
An accomplished statesman and superb politician. After a dozen years of Federalist presidents, the Federal judiciary was filled with their appointees. And John Marshall presided over them.
Judiciary Act
Passed in 1801 by Congress to create 16 new judgeships and six additional circuit courts.
Explain Marbury v. Madison
Adams tried to fill with "midnight judges' before he left office and Jefferson complained.
In 1798 Republican-dominated legislatures in Kentucky and Virgina arguing over Alien and Sedition acts did what?
Asserted their power to determine the constitutionality of national laws, but the Constitution implied Supreme Court held the power of Judicial Review.
James Madison refused to do what?
Deliver the commision appointing William Marbury, one of Adam's midnight jurors.
What did Marbury do?
Petition to the Supreme Court to compel delivery, arguing that the Judiciary Act of 1789 gave the Court Jurisdiction.
What did cheif justice Marshall rule?
Marbury had a right to commission but the Court did not have power to enforce particular right.
How did Marchall clerely condemn Mdison's action while avoiding a direct confrontation with the Republican Admin.?
By doing the preceding act.
In ruling that the section of the Judiciary Act extending the Court's jurisdiction violated the Constitution, what had Marshall done?
Asserted the Court's power to overturn a national law and to exercise the power or judicial review.
Ignoring Marshall's challenges, what did Jefferson and the Republicans do?
They used their newfound national power to reverse many Federalist policies.
When the Alien and Sedition Acts expired in 1801, what had Congress refused to do?
Reenact them and branded them politically motivated and unconstitutional.
What did it also ammend?
Naturalization Act to permit resident aliens to become citizens after 5 years/
Although Jefferson secured repeal of the Judiciary Act...
He appointed some Federalists to government posts allowed them to keep their jobs.
How did Jefferson face foreign affairs?
There was an immediate crisis. In the 1790's the North Africa had systematically raided American merchant ships and Federalist officials had paid a bribe to buy their protection.
What did Jefferson do to solve this?
Initially he reversed the policy saying that they would no longer pay the tribute but he finally ordered US Navy to retaliate and accepteed a diplomatic solution that granted a reduced tribute to avoid war.
What did Jefferson do in domestic affairs?
Set a clear Republican course. Abolished all internal tazes inncluding excise tax (whiskey) and he reduced the size of the permanent army to avoid fears of military takeover.
Did he tolerate the Bank of US?
yes even though he condemned it as unconstitutional in 1791.
Who did he choose as his secretary of treasury?
Albert Gallatin, a fiscal conservative who believed that national debt was an "evil".
How did Gallatin reduce the debt ?
By controlling governemnt expenditures and using customs revenues to redeem government bonds.
How had Jefferson championed the settlement of the west?
Celebrated teh Yeoman farmer and helped the Confederation's Western land ordinances and strongly supported Pinckney's Treaty of 1795, which allowed settlers in the interior to ship crows down the Mississippi river.
Jefferson seized the oppurtunity to do what?
Increase the flow of settlers from West.
Because Jefferson wanted to see the West populated with Yeoman, he did what/
Republicans in Congress passed laws in 1800 and 1804 reducing the minimum allotment first to 320 and then to 160 acres.
Who was Napoleon Bonaparte?
Seized power in France and began an ambitious campaign to establish a French empire both in Europe and Americas.
Napoleon coerced who into signing a secret treaty that returned to France its former colony of Lousisiana?
A year later he did what?
Restricted American accress to New Orleans, violating the Pinckney's Treaty.
Bonaparte's aggressive actions prompted JEfferson to do what?
question his party's traditional pro-French policy.
What did he do to avoid hostilitis?
Send Robert R. Livingston to Paris to negotiate the purchase New Orleans.
Who else did he send to Britain to seek its assistance in case of war?
James Monroe.
By 1802 French invasion of Haiti was fading and Napolean feared what?
An American invasion of Louisiana.
What did he do because of his fear? (Bonaparte)
Offered to sell Louisiana for about 15 million $. Livingston and Monroe concluded what was the Louisiana Purchase.
This forced the president to reconsider his inerpretation of what?
The Constitution. He had been a strong constructionalist but now maintained a looser interpretation on adding new territory.
What did Jefferson do in 1804 to learn more about Louisiana?
he sent Meriwether Lewis to explore the region with William Clark, an army officer. Aided by Indian guides, they traveled up the Mississippi.
Though the Lousiana Purchase was a stunning accomplishment, it also brought a new threat. How?
New England Federalist feared Western Expansion and would diminish the power of their states and their party and of leaving the Union.
What did Alexander Hamilton do?
Refused to support their plan for a separate North Confederacy.
The secessionists turned to?
Aaron Burr (VP).
In 1804 Hamilton accused Burro of...?
Participating in a conspiracy to destroy the Union...Burr challenged him to a duel and Hamilton died and state courts in NY and NJ indicted Burr for murder.
After his term ended, what did Burr do to prevent prosecution?
He fled to West and there conspired with General James Wilkinson, the military governor of Lousiana. Their plan is a mystery..but
Who betrayed who?
Wilkinson betrayed Burr and arrested him for treason. Jury acquitted Burr of treason.
Thus, the Republican's policy of Western expansion had increased sectional tension and party conflict...doing what?
generating states' rights sentiment in New England and secessionist schemes in the West.
How did the Napoleonic Wars affect the American Republic?
They threatened the commercial interests of the American republic.
Who refused to respect the neutrality of American merchant vessels?
Great Britain and France.
What did Napoleon encorce to European ports requiring custom officials to seize neutral ships that had stopped in Britain?
"Continental System"
The British Navy did what to American ships?
Searched them for British desertersand impressed (forced) them back into service.
How did Americans react to the British officers seizing many American sailors?
Why had JEfferson pursued a policy of Peaceful coercion?
To protect American interests while avoiding war
What is a policy of peaceful coercion?
Designed to force the British and French to accept the American definition of neutral rights by forbidding American trade with Europe. (centerpeice of this flawed policy was Embargo)
What was the Embargo Act of 1807?
Prohibited American ships from leaving their home ports until Britain and France repealed their restrictions on US trade.
Why was this a disaster?
Exports plunged, hurting farmers and merchants prompting Federalists to demand its repeal.
the Republican Congress passed the Force Act to do what?
Give customs officials extraordinary powers to prevent smuggling into Canada.
How did Federalists react?
Railed against government tyranny.
Who did they vote for anyway in the election of 1808?
James Madison, a Republican .
What did he do about the Embargo act?
Understood its failures and replaced it with a series of new economic restrictions, none which succeeded in persuading France and Britain to respect America's neutral rights.
What were the War Hawkes?
Republican congressmen from the West.
What had the Native American peoples been doing?
Goal was to exclude white from all lands west of the Appalachian Mountains.
How did the "war hawkes" react?
Thought that Britain was the major offender for providing them with weapons.Congress expansionists also condemned British, and threatened to invade Canada.
In 1811, William Henry Harrison, the governor of the Indiana territory, did what?
led a an army against a village.
Who pushed Madison towards a war with Great Britain?
Henry Clay of Kentucky, and new speaker John C. Calhoun (HoR).
With the national elections approaching, what did Madison demand of Britain?
Respect for American sovereignty in the West and neutral rights on the Atlantic.
What did he do when the British didnt respond?
Asked Congress for a declaration of war. Senate voted for war and the HoR concurred.
Why did the US go to war (1812)?
Violations of it sneutral rights; seizure of merchant ships, and impressment of sailors. The Federalists voted against war deckaratuibn and for candidate of the FEderalists, but Monroe beat him out.
What happened after the first invasion?
Americans lost predictions of an easy victory.
In October 1813, General William Harrison did what in a battled over a combined British and Indian force at the Battle of the Thames.
What prevented a major invasion of Canada in the East?
Political divisions. Britain benefited from this.
By 1814, British Navy ships had done what?
burned governmental buildings, troops advanced.
The only positive news was what?
a planter named Andrew Jackson leg an army of militia men from Tennessee to victory over British supported Creek Indians, forcing them to cede lands.
American military setbacks did what to the opposition to the war?
What did delegates do conventions do to end domination of the presidency by Virginians?
Proposed Constitutional ammendments that would limit the office to a single four year term and require it to rotate from different states' citizens. Other delegates suggested restricting embargoes to 60 days with 2/3 majority in Congress to declare war, prohibit trade, admit a new state to Union.
As a minority party in Congress, how was the only war the Federalists could prevail?
If the war continued to go very badly. The US was under military pressure from North to south.
Fortunately, Britain wanted peace. Why?
The 20 year struggle with France had sapped its wealth and energey and so it entered negotiations with the US in Ghent, Belgium.
Treaty of Ghent in Christmas 1814?
American commissioners demanded territory in Canada and Florida and British insisted on Indian buffer state between Canada and US. This treaty restored prewar borders of the US.
How had the war ended?
Jackson's troops crushed British forces and fought carefully. British lost soem of their finest troops. This made Jacksn a national hero and redeemed their pride.
Who else rose to national prominence for his diplomatic efforts at Ghent and his subsequent success in resolving boundary disputes?
John Quincy Adams of the Republican party.He became secretary of state under Monroe.
Rush-Bagot treaty with Great Britain limited what by who?
Adams enacted it with Great Britain to limit both of their naval forces on the Great Lakes.
In 1819, he also persuaded Spain to cede what territory in what treaty?
Florida in the Adam-Onis Treay.
What did the American government do in return?
Took responsibility for its citizens' financial claims against Spain and as a result Adam's efforts had gained possession of much southern land.
How did the nation develop gradually?
Into a more economicically diverse and capitalist (based on private property and market exchanges). But it was still influenced by the republican commonwealth.
Why did the Americas need a bank system?
To finance its first millionaires and landowners...etc.
When did Philedalphia merchants persuade Confederation Congress to charter the Bank of North America to provide short-term commercial loans?
1781. This $ was needed to finance transactions.
First Bank of the United States was charted by Hamilton in what year?
What happened to it?
Despite its success and power, it could not survive because Jeffersonians were suspicious of corruptio by monied men and the charter expired in 1811, without Madison seeking renewal.
What were the State Banks like when Madison created the Second Bank of the US?
There were already 246 state-chartered banks.