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28 Cards in this Set

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Helinski Accords
August 1975
A "breakthrough" in peaceful negotiations in Europe as most European countries agreed to recognize international borders. The 2 Germany's & 2 Berlin's were formally recognized. Represented the highlight of the detente era.
Cruise Missile
Pilotless plane like device with sophisticated guidance mechanisms with nuclear bombs attached.
Strategic Defense Initiative
(SDI)
Vision of US self defense intended to prevent nuclear attacks from USSR. Sophisticated series of radar & deployment of massive retalitory weapons. More a threat, than a system.
Solidarity
Liberation movement in Poland where Lach Walesa organized massive trade union protests against oppressive Polish government.
Lech Walesa
1980
Becomes leader of Poland, organized mass protests & strikes in Poland, led to downfall of communist regime. Becomes President in 1990...took 10 yrs for Polish ppl to realize communism did not work for them.
General Jaruzelski
1981
Polish leader, traditional communist hardliner. Makes some improvement to Poland, did not have enough widespread support.
Tadeusz Mazowiecki
1980's
PM of Poland 1980-1990. Belong to Solidarity movement.
Janos Kadar
1985
Leader in Hungary...Communist supporter, introduced democracy. By 1988, lost control of his party
Joszef Natal
1990
1st real democratic leader of Hungary.
Erich Honecker
Leader of East Germany during main communist years. Did not want to give up concessions to his ppl, even after witnessing democratic movements in Poland & Hungary.
Eron Krenz
1989
Replaced Honecker as a more moderate communist leader of East Germany. By 1990, 2 Germany's reunified, he lost power.
Helmut Kohl
1989
1st democratic leader of "Germany". Leader of his "Christian democrats" that rule Germany for rest of century.
Vaclac Havel
1989
1st democratic leader of Czechoslovakia. Helped organize protests, nation wide strikes.
Alexander Dubcek
1968
"socialism with a human face". Was secretary of Czechoslovakia. Helped his country become democratic. Reponsible for freedom of the press, assembly, worship, right to strike, & right to travel abroad.
Velvet Revolution
to describe successful result of Czechoslovakia becoming democratic. Series of communist protests were violently stopped in Prague.
Nicolae Ceausesu
Violent dictator of Romania since 1965. Communist leader, ruled ruthlessly. Considered brutal, killed thousands.
Tidor Zhivkov
Communist leader of Bulgaria during Soviet domination period. June 1990, Bulgaria has its first free elections, communists lose power.
Slobdodan Milosevic
1988
Serbian who was PM of Yugoslavia. Responsible for ethnic cleansing of Yugoslavia. Regarded as self serving ruthless leader who wanted Serbs to be dominant.
Franjo Tudjman
1991
1st democratic leader of Croatia.
Ethnic Cleansing
Used by Milosevic. Describe killing of ppl so one ethnic group remains dominant. Refers to Serbs trying to get rid of Muslims in Yugoslavia.
Leonid Breshniv
1964-1982
Last of the hardliners of the communist regime in USSR
Apparatachiks
Main supporters and defenders of Stalinist style of communism.
Mikhail Gorbachev
1985-1991
Last Communist leader of USSR. Softer approach to communism. Introduced glasnost and perestroika in USSR.
Boris Yeltsin
1991
1st non-communist leader of USSR. Base support from Russia did not have widespread support in any other part of USSR.
Glasnost
1986
Gorbachev's approach of leadership that meant openness and encouraged honest debate and criticism. Freedom of expression and freeom of speech were encouraged in USSR.
Perestroika
Gorbachev's approach to restructing economy of USSR.
Reform Congress
1989
Transition phase between the hardliner communist and breakup of USSR in 1991. Reluctant merger of 3 main groups in USSR, did not get much accomplished.
Union Treaty
1991
Agreement between the USSR republics and Central government in Moscow. Moscow would give more power & decentralize their power so the other republics could be more independant.