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255 Cards in this Set

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Prior to Kennedy's election and during the early 1960s the American economy was _____________.
sluggish, with low GNP growth
During the 1960 presidential campaign, HE promised to get the American economy moving again.
John F. Kennedy
Kennedy appeared to be more polished than Nixon when the two appeared on the first televised _____.
presidential debates
Some people questioned if Kennedy was ready to be president because of his _____.
age
John Kennedy was the first person of this faith to be elected President.
Roman Catholic
Won the 1960 presidential election by a very slim margin.
John F. Kennedy
Kennedy's victory in the 1960 presidential election was ____________.
narrow
Kennedy inspired a generation of young people by asking them to put patriotism before ___.
personal interest
Kennedy's program became known as the ______.
New Frontier
Kennedy proposed cutting taxes to end the continuing __________.
recession
In his first two years as president Kennedy, hoped to help the poor by _____.
stimulating the economy
In a book titled "The Other America" Michael Harrington revealed that one fifth of the American population lived below the _____.
poverty line
After the first two years of his presidency Kennedy became convinced that the poor needed direct ____.
federal aid
In domestic affairs, Kennedy rarely succeeded in pushing _____________.
legislation through congress
Kennedy's lack of success with his domestic policies was largely due to his lack of support in ____.
congress
Cutting taxes, providing aid to the poor, and promoting the space program were all parts of Kennedy's ______.
New Frontier
The economy, poverty, and the space program were all addressed by Kennedy's __________.
New Frontier
In 1961, President Kennedy committed NASA and the nation to the goal of _________.
landing a man on the moon within the decade
On November 22, 1963 President Kennedy was ___.
assassinated
Declared that Kennedy's assassination was the work of a lone assassin.
The Warren Commission
The Warren Commission had decided that Kennedy had been assassinated by ___________.
one man who worked alone
As a senator, this President was famed for his ability to accomplish his political goals.
Lyndon Johnson
Included major poverty relief, education aid, healthcare (especially for the elderly & the poor), voting rights, conservation and beautification projects, urban renewal, and economic development in depressed areas.
Johnson's Great Society
After the 1964 election President Johnson, unlike Kennedy after the 1960 election, had a ________.
strong mandate
Part of the reason for Johnson's landslide victory in 1964 was Goldwater's __________.
radical views
Healthcare legislation was a major part of President's Johnson's program known as the ______.
Great Society
This program of President Johnson won passage of several of Kennedy's New Frontier goals and added to them.
the Great Society
Like Kennedy, Johnson believed that budget deficits could be used to stimulate the economy, but to get support for his tax cuts he had to also agree to cut _____.
government spending
What did President Johnson get congress to pass that actually caused the GNP to rise?
tax-cuts
Some people feared that Johnson's tax-cuts would cause the deficit to rise, but because of the increased GNP, tax revenues actually went up and the deficit ______.
shrank
Increased expenditures on public welfare programs from 1965 to 1975.
Johnson's "War on Poverty"
In 1964 President Johnson launched the "War on ___."
Poverty
Provided low-cost health insurance for poor Americans of any age who could not afford their own private health insurance.
Medicaid
Provided hospital and low-cost medical insurance for most Americans age 65 and older.
Medicare
was intended to eliminate quotas restricting immigration from certain countries.
Immigration Act of 1965
Under this Chief Justice the Supreme court passed several important decisions protecting the constitutional rights of citizens accused of crimes.
Earl Warren
Required that suspects be informed of their rights.
Miranda Rule
Ruled that evidence seized illegally could not be used in trial.
Supreme Court
The way seats of a legislative body are distributed among electoral districts.
apportionment
Supreme court decisions on apportionment ruled that electoral districts had to be based on "_____."
one person one vote
Supreme court case that declared that congressional districts had to be apportioned on the basis of one person, one vote.
Baker vs.. Carr
Erupted in poor areas of major cities from 1965 to 1968.
race riots
In response to the Great Society, some Americans complained that too many of their tax dollars were being spent on ______.
poor people
Ever since the Great Society, people have argued as to whether or not antipoverty programs have helped the poor or have encouraged them to become ___.
dependent upon government
Critics of the Great Society believed it gave too much power to the ___________.
federal government
Johnson's Great Society did cut the number of people living below the poverty line in _____.
half
LBJ's inability to contain this conflict undermined and finally ended the Great Society.
Vietnam
Stopping the spread of communism was the guiding principle behind the foreign policies of both _______________.
President Kennedy & President Johnson
A failed attempt by U.S. backed Cuban exiles to invade Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro's communist government.
Bay of Pigs invasion
When Kennedy's advisors urged him to provide air cover to the Cuban exiles attacking at the Bay of Pigs he ______.
refused
When the Soviets sought a treaty to make the division of Berlin permanent in an attempt to stop the flow of East Germans escaping to West Germany, Kennedy feared it was part of a larger effort to take over the ________.
rest of Europe
President Kennedy asked for huge increases in military spending because he was afraid that the Soviet Union would ___________.
take over Europe
After Kennedy authorized a military buildup to show that the U.S. would not be bullied by the Soviet Union, the Soviets began ____________.
construction of the Berlin Wall
The Soviets built IT in order to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West.
Berlin Wall
Standoff between the U.S. and the Soviet Union that could have led to nuclear war.
Cuban Missile Crisis
By positioning missiles on Cuban soil, the Soviets provoked Kennedy to ______________.
quarantine Cuba
As a result of the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Soviets ________.
removed their missiles from Cuba.
When the Cuban Missile Crisis was over, Kennedy and Khrushchev established a _______ between their two nations.
"hot line"
An agreement between Kennedy, Khrushchev and Great Britain that was the first nuclear treaty since the development of the Atomic Bomb.
Limited Test Ban Treaty
Banned nuclear testing above the ground.
Limited Test Ban Treaty
Kennedy believed he could encourage stability in Latin America by promoting _________.
economic stability
Cooperative effort to produce economic and social reform in the Western Hemisphere.
Alliance for Progress
Was established by Kennedy to discourage the spread of communism in the Western Hemisphere.
The Alliance for Progress
Program in which volunteers served in developing nations.
Peace Corps
This group of volunteers initiated by Kennedy worked to raise the standard of living in poor areas.
Peace Corps
Johnson sent Marines to this Latin American country in 1965 in order to protect American citizens.
Dominican Republic
Like Kennedy, Johnson was determined to stop the spread of Communism in ______.
Vietnam
Movement that pushed for the absolute equality of men and women.
feminism
The feminist movement of the 1960s was the ____.
women's movement
The women's movement of the 1960s grew out of women's frustration with various forms of __.
job discrimination
Borrowed legal tools and inspiration from the civil rights movement.
women's movement
As a result of their experience in the civil rights movement, many women learned the importance of taking advantage of ________.
legal tools
Author of The Feminine Mystique.
Betty Friedan
To explore important issues, women formed consciousness-raising _____________.
support groups
A group of activists who wanted to bring women into the mainstream quickly.
National Organization of Women (NOW)
Founder of Ms. Magazine, a new magazine for women.
Gloria Steinem
The change in women's career goals was a result of the change in attitudes produced by the ____.
women's movement
The Supreme Court case that legalized abortion.
Roe vs. Wade
"Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex."
Equal Rights Amendment
This Amendment passed Congress in 1972 but failed in the ratification process.
Equal Rights Amendment
Law that would make discrimination based on a person's gender illegal.
Equal Rights Amendment
The equal rights amendment did not become law because it was not __________.
ratified by the states
Many of the women who rejected the women's movement did so because they preferred _____.
traditional roles
Conservative political activist who opposed the women's movement.
Phyllis Schafly
Felt undervalued by the women's movement, disapproved of feminists' goals, and opposed the Equal Rights Amendment.
women who preferred the traditional role of homemaking
Person whose family origins are in Spanish-speaking Latin America.
Latino
Latinos in the US come from different countries but generally speak the ____________.
same language
Person who moves from farm to farm planting and harvesting crops.
migrant farm worker
Group founded by Cesar Chavez to organize Mexican farm workers.
United Farm Workers (UFW)
Co-founder of the United Farm Workers.
Cesar Chavez
A nationwide consumer boycott was a successful strategy used by _______.
Cesar Chavez
Jobs, education, and legal matters, were all areas where, in the 1960s, Mexican Americans fought ___.
discrimination
Led the political party La Raza Unida.
Jose Angel Gutierrez
La Raza Unida was an organization that represented Latino ___________.
political interests
Group that worked for compensation for Japanese Americans interned during World War II.
Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
Group that spoke out against Japanese American property losses during their wartime internment.
Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
During the 1960s and 1970, Asian Americans made economic gains but continued to face
discrimination
Dennis Banks and George Mitchell were active in the American _______.
Indian movement
Dennis Banks and George Mitchell focused on the problems for Native Americans living in _____.
cities
Dennis Banks and George Mitchell fought for legal rights for ______.
Native Americans
Chippewa activist and member of the American Indian Movement.
Dennis Banks
Group that fought for Native American treaty rights and self-government.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Restoration of lands illegally taken, autonomy of native Americans, and control of natural resources were all goals of the _.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Group that valued youth, spontaneity, and individuality.
counterculture or hippies
Name for members of the counterculture.
hippie
Promoted peace, love, and freedom.
hippies
By rejecting conventional customs, the counterculture (hippies) drew on the example of the ____.
Beat Generation
Many female hippies chose to wear ____.
loose-fitting dresses
Cultural changes in the 1960s led to more open discussion of ______.
sex
People who lived in communal groups rejected traditional ______________.
marriage
Many young people sought to escape from reality by ____________.
using drugs
The most serious danger posed by abuse of drugs.
overdosing
Growing long hair and wearing nontraditional clothes were both parts of the 1960s ________.
counterculture
The increase of the student population of the 1960s was largely the result of the _____.
"baby boom"
Popular 1960s rock music group.
the Beatles
In the 1960s the Beatles performed a new kind of ___.
rock music
Social phenomenon that occurred during the summer of 1967, centered in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco, included psychoactive drug use, sexual freedom, and creative expression.
Summer of Love
400,000 people gathered for a peaceful concert of major rock bands in the summer of 1969.
Woodstock
What shocked most Americans about Woodstock was the amount of __________.
drugs & sex
Most hippies were children of the comfortable ____.
middle class
When the counterculture fell apart, most hippies melted right back into the _______.
mainstream
The use of harmful chemicals such as DDT was exposed by the book ________.
Silent Spring
Author of a book detailing the effects of pesticides on the environment.
Rachel Carson
Rachel Carson published a book in 1962 that started the _____________________.
environmental movement
A major theme of this book was that humans are part of nature, and all parts of nature interact.
Silent Spring
Radioactivity being released into the air was the greatest threat posed by _____.
Nuclear power plants
Worked to ensure the safety of nuclear power plants.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
Senator from Wisconsin who helped organize the first national Earth Day.
Gaylord Nelson
In response to environmental activists the government created the ________.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Combined federal agencies concerned with air and water pollution.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Enforced national pollution control standards
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Controlled pollutions caused by industry and car emissions.
Clean Air Act
Regulated wastewater discharges.
Clean Water Act
In Alaska during the 1970s, the federal government attempted to balance _____.
jobs and the environment
Man most responsible for the development of the consumer movement of the 1960s.
Ralph Nader
Wrote a government report exposing the hazards of the automobile.
Ralph Nader
The passage of automobile safety legislation was the result of a __________.
government report
Conquered Indochina in the 1800s and controlled it until it was overrun by Japan in WWII.
French
During WWII the Japanese faced stiff resistance in Indochina (especially in Vietnam) from _______.
guerrillas
Small groups of loosely organized soldiers who make surprise raids.
guerrillas
After the Japanese were defeated they set out to re-establish authority in Indochina.
French
League for the Independence of Vietnam.
Vietminh
Leader of the Vietminh.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh was both a nationalist and a ______.
communist
Vietnamese victory over the French in 1954 that convinced the French to leave Vietnam
Dien Bien Phu
After 1954 the struggle for Vietnam became part of the _______.
Cold War
After Dien Bien Phu representatives of Ho Chi Minh, Bao Dai, Cambodia, Laos, France, the U.S., the Soviet Union, China, and Britain arranged a peace settlement.
Geneva Accords
As a result of the Geneva Accords, Vietnam was _____.
divided
After Vietnam was divided, Ho Chi Minh's communists controlled North Vietnam and South Vietnam was controlled by noncommunists led by
Ngo Dinh Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem and the South Vietnamese were supported by the ______.
United States
The agreement to divide Vietnam included an agreement to hold elections to reunite Vietnam, these elections were never held because _______.
Diem and the U.S. feared the communists would win
The majority of South Vietnamese actually supported ___________.
Ho Chi Minh
Catholic and pro-French Vietnamese favored ___.
South Vietnam
The U.S. supported Ngo Dinh Diem's regime because they feared the _________.
spread of communism
Ngo Dinh Diem's dictatorial regime alienated many Vietnamese because of its __________.
corruption and brutal tactics
Many Vietnamese believed South Vietnam was under the foreign domination of the ____.
U.S.
By the early 1960s many South Vietnamese communist guerrilla fighters, with the support of North Vietnam were fighting against the ____.
South Vietnamese forces
The fear that if one nation falls to communism, its neighbors will soon follow.
domino theory
Theory or principle, described by President Eisenhower, that became associated with U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia.
domino theory
The U.S. got involved in the Vietnam War out of fear that the __________.
communists would take over
President Eisenhower pledged his support to South Vietnams' Diem and by 1960 about 675 U.S. _____________.
military advisors were in Vietnam
President Kennedy supported the government of Ngo Dinh Diem because he feared
communists would take over
His policy in Vietnam was to increase the number of military advisors.
President Kennedy
Diem increased the opposition to his government by forcing Buddhist to obey ______.
Catholic laws
When monks burned themselves to death, in opposition to Diem's rule, the U.S. encouraged the South Vietnamese military to
overthrow Diem
Military leaders in South Vietnam overthrew HIM because he lost American support.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Diem's successors were not popular and were not successful in fighting the ______.
Viet Cong
National Liberation Front, the South Vietnamese communist rebels trying to overthrow the government of South Vietnam.
Viet Cong
Ho Chi Minh determined to unite Vietnam supported the _____.
Viet Cong
Communist guerrillas who fought to gain control of South Vietnam.
Viet Cong
President Johnson's objective in Vietnam.
Prevent a communist takeover
The first attack on an American destroyer by the North Vietnamese, was provoked by a South Vietnamese raid on the North, the second attack didn't actually happen, it was only a false sonar reading.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
Claimed that both the first attack in the Gulf of Tonkin and the second (which didn't happen) were both unprovoked.
President Lyndon Johnson
Used the Gulf of Tonkin Incident to get congress to authorize his enormous escalation of U.S. forces in Vietnam.
President Lyndon Johnson
In August of 1964 IT was passed by Congress, giving President Johnson the authority to use whatever force he thought necessary in Vietnam.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Number of U.S. men sent to Vietnam from 1964 to 1973.
2.5 million
A large percentage of the men who served in Vietnam and often as high as two thirds of the men who served in combat were______.
drafted
About 80% of the soldiers who served in Vietnam came from the ______.
working and lower classes
U.S. Soldiers in Vietnam were generally not trying to take more territory, their primary objective was to increase the _______.
body count
Because they came from Vietnamese peasants, the U.S. soldiers had a great deal of difficulty finding and identifying the
Viet Cong
Because many Vietnamese villagers gave refuge to the Viet Cong, the villages themselves sometimes became
military targets
Though the Viet Cong lacked the sophisticated equipment of the U.S., they were highly effective at
guerrilla war tactics
An elaborate tunnel system was one advantage of the _________.
Viet Cong
Sniper fire and booby traps (including land mines) were techniques used by the _____.
Viet Cong
When American soldiers discovered that many South Vietnamese people did not appreciate their efforts, they were
confused
This technique used by Americans to destroy roads and bridges, hurt civilians in both North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
saturation bombing
In fighting the North Vietnamese, US. Forces used the technique of _______.
saturation bombing
Using B-52 bombers to drop thousands of tons of explosives over large areas.
saturation bombing
Many of the bombs dropped, in saturation bombing, threw pieces of their thick metal casings in all directions.
fragmentation bombs
Were used to expose Viet Cong hiding places.
herbicides
Most infamous herbicide used by the U.S. in Vietnam.
Agent Orange
Destructive chemical weapon used by Americans in Vietnam. Dropped from airplanes it splattered and burned uncontrollably.
napalm
After winning reelection in 1964, President Johnson began a gradual of the Vietnam War.
escalation
When the Viet Cong attacked Pleiku, within South Vietnam, and killed 8 Americans in 1965, President Johnson responded by authorizing the _______.
bombing of North Vietnam
Commander of U.S. forces in Vietnam.
General William Westmorland
Relentless bombing campaign against North Vietnam from 1965 to 1968.
Operation Rolling Thunder
Those who opposed the Vietnam war in the U.S.
doves
Those who favored the Vietnam war in the U.S.
hawks
Troops and supplies poured into South Vietnam from the North, via THIS supply route that passed through Laos and Cambodia.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A coordinated attack against cities and bases in South Vietnam, by the Viet Cong & North Vietnamese in 1968.
Tet Offensive
Converted many Americans to the view that the Vietnam war could not be won.
Tet Offensive
Incident in which American troops killed from 175 to 400 Vietnamese villagers.
My Lai massacre
The brutality of American soldiers who killed Vietnamese villagers during this massacre shocked many Americans.
My Lai massacre
Officer in charge of the My Lai massacre.
William Calley
The heroics of an American helicopter crew prevented the My Lai massacre death toll from ____.
being greater
Pilot who along with his crew prevented the My Lai Massacre from being worse.
Hugh Thompson
Post World War II prosperity gave many young people of the 1960s freedom and opportunities unknown to previous _________________.
generations
In the early 1960s the generation gap ____.
widened
The student protest movement of the 1960s emerged from the ________.
civil rights movement
Organized by civil rights activists, it issued the Port Huron Statement and was influential in the formation of the "New Left."
Students for a Democratic Society
Written primarily by Tom Hayden it claimed "we would replace power rooted in possession, privilege, or circumstance by power and uniqueness rooted in love, reflectiveness, reason, and creativity."
Port Huron Statement
The SDS called for power to be rooted in love, reflectiveness, reason and creativity.
Port Huron Statement
Political movement which believed that problems of racism and poverty, called for radical changes in American society.
New Left
Sought broader and more democratic change than the old left.
New Left
When college professors gathered and expressed their opinions about the Vietnam War.
teach-ins
People who opposed fighting the war on moral or religious grounds were known as ____
conscientious objectors
Most of the people who refused to be drafted in the early 1960s were _______.
conscientious objectors
College students could postpone being drafted into military service by getting a __________.
deferment
Some American questioned the fairness of the draft because THEY could easily avoid the draft.
college students
Many young men avoided the draft by _________.
going to Canada
Due to opposition to the Vietnam war he chose not to run for reelection in 1968.
Lyndon Johnson
The success of the antiwar candidate Eugene McCarthy and the entrance of antiwar candidate Robert Kennedy into the Presidential race, contributed to Johnson not running for _____.
reelection
Republican Candidate in the 1968 Presidential election.
Richard Nixon
In 1968 the Democratic party was split by the same issues___.
dividing the nation
The split in the democratic party led to protests at THIS EVENT and the brutal suppression of those protests by Mayor Daley.
democratic convention of 1968
Democratic candidate in the 1968 Presidential election.
Hubert Humphrey
A third party candidate in 1968, he appealed to blue-collar voters in the North, who resented campus radicals and antiwar activists.
George Wallace
In an era of chaos and confrontation middle America turned to the Republican party for
stability
Winner of the 1968 Presidential election.
Richard Nixon
At the end of his presidency Johnson cut back on the bombing and called for _____.
peace negotiations
New policy in Vietnam announced by Nixon in 1969.
Vietnamization
Policy of replacing American forces with South Vietnamese soldiers.
Vietnamization
In 1970, President Nixon announced that the U.S. forces would invade _______.
Cambodia
Nixon was willing to intensify the war in order to strengthen America's position at the ___.
peace talks
Negotiations that ended U.S. involvement in Vietnam.
Paris peace talks
Term used by Nixon to refer to the large number of American people who he believed supported his Vietnam policies.
silent majority
Nixon's invasion of Cambodia reignited ________.
student protests in the 1970s
The primary focus of the protest movement of the 1960s was to demand _____.
U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam
Tensions between students who opposed the war and National Guardsman resulted in four deaths at _____.
Kent State
Brought the brutality of the Vietnam war into people's living rooms.
Television
As Nixon withdrew troops from Vietnam he resumed ______________.
resumed bombing raids
Under increasing pressure to end U.S. involvement in Vietnam he negotiated the Paris Peace Accord in 1973.
Richard Nixon
The U.S. agreed to withdraw its troops and North Vietnam agreed not to send any more troops into the South.
Paris Peace Accord
The seventeenth parallel would continue to divide North & South Vietnam, all prisoners of war would be released, and the U.S would withdrawal from Vietnam.
Paris Peace Accord
Year that the Vietnam Peace Treaty was signed.
1973
Two years after the U.S. had withdrawn from Vietnam the _______.
North Vietnamese conquered South Vietnam
The Vietnam war ended in 1975 when North Vietnam ____.
gained control of all of Vietnam
After the last Americans fled Saigon, the North Vietnamese completed ___________.
their conquest of South Vietnam
The year the Vietnam War ended.
1975
Also fell to communism after the U.S. withdrew from Vietnam
Cambodia & Laos
Communist guerrillas who came to power in Cambodia.
Khmer Rouge
Ruler of the Khmer Rouge who oversaw work camps and the genocide of more than a million Cambodians.
Pol Pot
After Cambodia and Laos communism did not spread any farther in ______.
Southeast Asia
A flood of refugees to the U.S. from Southeast Asia was one _______________.
legacy of the Vietnam War
Was created to help heal the wounds created by the Vietnam war.
Vietnam Memorial