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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nervous Tissue:
- Anatomical Classification
- Functional Classification
* Anatomical Classification:
- Central Nervous System (CNS)
- Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

* Functional Classification:
- Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
- Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) (visceral- unconsciously controlled)
Tissue components of nervous tissue
- neuron
- supportive cells:
In CNS: neuroglia
In PNS: Schwann cells; Satellite cells
- Vasculature
Neuron Categories
* Sensory Neurons (senses and position):
- somatic afferent fibers
- visceral afferent fibers

* Motor Neurons
- somatic efferent fibers
- visceral efferent fibers

* Interneurons- connections, help integrate sensory and motor neurons
Neuron Anatomy
- cell body
- axon (longer, away from the cell)
- dendrites (bring impulses into the cell)
Neuron Types
1. Multipolar- one axon, multiple dendrites
2. Bipolar- one axon, one dendrite
3. Unipolar (aka pseudopolar)- one axon, no distinct dendrites (only in certain places)
Neuron Cell Body
- Nissl bodies- free ribosomes involved in protein synthesis

- Axon hillocks- an organelle-free region at the base of the body leading out into the axon

- Perikaryon- nerve cell body; has machinery like mitochondria, etc.
Cell Processes- dendrites (bring signal to the body)
- dendrites found near the cell body (short)
- branch to form dendritic trees
- unmyelinated
- wider in diameter than axons
- dendritic spines (nubs where axon attaches)
Cell Processes- axons (take signal away from cell body to interact with another neuron)
- one axon per cell
- very long
- not branched
- originate from axon hillock
- not many organelles present
Morphological Types of Synapes
1. Axodendritic- occurring btwn axons and dendrites
2. Axosomatic- occurring btwn axons and cell body
3. Axoaxonic- occurring btwn axons and axons
4. Dendrodendritic- occurring btwn dendrites and dendrites
Transmission Types of Signals
- Chemical (release of chemical substances)
- Electrical (travels through gap junction; no chemicals- common in invertebrates)
- voltage gated (open based on a charge)
- ligand gated (ligand (neurotransmitters) open it)
Axonal Transport
- most protein synthesis occurs in cell body and get transported out there by motor proteins traveling along microtubules

- Kinesin: carry molecules toward the positive end of the microtubule (toward synapse)
- Dynein: carry them back to the cell body (negative end)
Supportive Cells
- Schwann cells
- Satellite cells

- Neuroglial cells
Schwann cells and myelin sheaths
- in PNS
- actual cells that are found along the length of axons and produce myelin sheath
- it envelops the axon and continues to wrap around it (can wrap up to 19 times)
- insulation allows signals to jump
Unmyelinated PNS nerves
- axon gets embedded in the sides of Schwann cell
- can get up to 20 axons embedded in one Schwann cell
Satellite Cells
- they are cuboidal cells- on periphery
- they surround cell bodies of ganglia
- they are functionally similar to schwann cells (help insulate)
Neuroglia Cells
1. Astrocytes- supportive; provide nutrition; create barriear in blood vessels by end feet

2. Microglia- small, phagocytic

3. Oligodendrocytes- maintain myelination in CNS

4. Ependymal cells- line spinal canal and ventricles of brain (maintain area and produce cerebralspinal fluid)*
- doesn't wrap its body around it
- process extends out and wraps around the axon (so it can myelinate more than one axon)
Peripheral Nerve Organization
- Schwann cells around axon
- Connective Tissues involved:
1. Perineurion
2. Endoneurion
3. Epineurion- outermost layer

- vasculature associated with this region
CNS Organization
- Gray matter- cell bodies for neurons (perikaryons); axons and dendrites

- White matter- pretty much only myelinated axons present

- Tracts: groups of axons heading to a specific location
Connective Tissues of CNS (surround the brain):
1. Dura mater- directly underneath skull; interacts with periosteum

2. Arachnoid- more delicate tissue; subarachnoid space is underneath (blood vessels run through subarachnoid space)

3. Pia mater- in direct contact with cerebral cortex
Blood-Brain Barrier
- tight junctions of endothelium
- foot processes of astrocytes (interact with capillaries)
- basal lamina associated with area
Neuron Injury
- nerve cells cannot replicate, so depending on how axon is injured, it may or may not be able to repair itself
- Schwann cells can divide and repair (but sometimes schwann cells don't do a good job at repairing)