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236 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Sensory Nerve Fibers that receive and transmit information from the environment to the CNS.
Afferent Nerve Fibers
Motor Nerve Fibers that transmit information generated in the CNS to the periphery.
Efferent Nerve Fibers
A Neuron is composed of ______
Dendrite, Cell body, and one axon
Where are cell bodies found?
Brain, Spinal cord, and Ganglion of PNS
The CNS is composed of ____?
Brain and Spinal Cord
The PNS is composed of ____ and ___.
Nerves and Ganglion
The 2 types of PNS nerves are____.
(31) Spinal nerves and (12) Cranial Nerves
What are the 2 types of Spinal motor nerves?
Somatic and Autonomic
The brain and spinal cord develope from the ____
neural tube
Neural crest cells develope into _____
Sensory nerve fibers, sensory neurons (dorsal root ganglia), autonomic ganglia, and schwann cells
What substances are transported anterograde?
Mitochondria, Neurotransmitters, structural proteins
What substances are transported retrograde?
degraded molecules andproteins, subunits of microtubules, building blocks of neurofilaments, some viruses
The MAP associated with anterograde is _________ , and retrograde is _______.
Kinesin, Dynein
Axon terminal ends dilate to form ____.
terminal boutons
Axons can branch off to form ____.
collateral branches
Major organelles of the dendrites.
Microtubules, neurofilaments, microfilaments, mitochondria;
Proximal may contain nissl bodies and parts of the Golgi
Major organelles of the soma.
Nucleus, Golgi, nissl substance, cytoskeleton, mitochondria
Major organelles of the axon
cytoskeleton (microtubules and neurofilaments), mitochondria, SER, transport vessicles
Major organelles of the axon terminal
synaptic vesicles, mitochondria, neurotransmitters
nissl bodies are composed of ______ and _____, and are stained with ____ dye.
RER and ribosomes; basic
The preferred dendrite site for some synaptic contacts.
Dendrite Spine
dendrite tree
The total array of dendrites
Kinesis transports toward the ______ or _______ end, and is known as _______.
axon; plus end; anterograde
Dynein transports toward the ______ or ______ end, and is known as _______.
soma; minus end; retrograde
The 3 speeds of axonal transport are _____ for _______, ______ for _______, and _______ for _______.
slow, soluable proteins such as cytoskeletal proteins and enzymes

intermediate for mitochondria

fast; vesicles of NT precursors and membrane comppnents
The ______ ending of axons contain _______, membrane packets of NT molecules.
presynaptic; synaptic vesicles
The action potential is generated at the ______.
axon hillock initial segment, spike trigger zone
A _____ neuron has one dendrite.
bipolar
A _____ neuron has no dendrite.
Pseudounipolar
A _____ neuron has more than one dendrite.
Multipolar
The specialized functions of bipolar neurons are ______, ______, and ________.
smell in the olfactory mucousa;
light and color in the retina;
sound asociated with cranial nerve 8 in the ear
The darkest neuroglial cell is the _______.
oligodendrocytes
The _____ produces myelin in the _______, while the PNS myelin is produced by the _______.
oligodendrocytes; CNS; schwann cells
The largest neuroglial cells are ______, which are found in the _______.
Astrocytes; CNS
A unique protein to the astrocyteis the _____.
Glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP)
Astrocytes bind neurons to _____ and ______.
capillaries and pia matter
Astrocytes in grey matter are known as _______ and, while those in white matter are known as _____.
protoplasmic astrocytes; fibrous astrocytes
Protoplasmic astrocytes have ______.
short branched processes
Fibrouis astrocytes have ______.
Few long processes
The function of astrocytes is to ________, through their _______.
transfer molecules and ions from the blood to the neuron; end feet
When the CNS is damaged, _____ proliferate to form scar tissue.
astrocytes
Astrocytes form ____ between each other.
Gap junctions
Ependymal cells are low ____ epithelial cells lining the ______ and the ________.
columnar; ventricles of the brain ; central canal of the spinal cord
_____ cells facilitate movement of the CSF.
ependymal
One oligodendrocyte can wrap _____ axons.
several
Microglial cells originate from _______.
bone marrow
______ nueroglial cells function as phagocytes clearing debris and damaged structures in CNS.
microglial cells
Microglial have a _____ nucleus, compared to the ______ nucleus of other glial cells.
elongated; spherical
In nervous tissue _____ cells, when activated become antigen- presenting cells.
Microglial
In MS, _____ cells phagocytose and degrade _____ by receptor mediated phagocytosis and lysomal activity.
microglial; myelin
The _____ is the layer of astrocyte end feet that protect the brain.
glia limitants
The only neuroglial cell that resides in the PNS
schwann cells
In a mylenated fiber, the innermost and outermost lips are known as the ____.
inner and outer mesaxon
Each schwann cell can only myelinate _____ internode of a single axon.
one
Each schwann cell can envelope ______ unmylinated axons.
several
_____ is known as the AP jumping from node to node.
saltatory conduction
Flattened out schwann cells that surround neuronal cell bodies in the PNS
satellite cells
The myelin between 2 nodes
internode
Major dense lines are formed from the _______ leaflet.
inner
intraperiod lines are formed from the _____.
outer leaflet
Impulse propagation is _____ and requires ______ energy than saltatory conduction.
slower; more
The external fibrous CT of nerves which also fills the the spaces between bundles of fibers.
epineureum
Bundles of nerve fibers are surrounded by ______
perineurium
Perineurium cell layers are joined at their edges by ______.
tight junction
The thin layer of reticular fibers produced by the schwann cells.
endoneurium
Sensory ganglia receive _____ impulses and relay information to the _____ matter of the _____ via synapses with local neurons.
afferent; gray; spinal cord
_____ is formed from cytoplasm that is not displaced during myelin formation.
schmidt langerman cleft
The two types of sensory ganglia
spinal and cranial
______ ganglia have large neuronal cell bodies with prominent fine nissl bodies surrounded by abundant satellite cells.
spinal
_____ gangli appear as bulbous dilations in autonomic nerves.
autonomic
The neurons of sensory ganglia are ______.
pseudounipolar
Autonomic ganglia usually have ______ neurons.
multipolar
Sensory ganglia of the spinal nerves are called _____.
dorsal root ganglia
Sensory ganglia house cell bodies of _____ neurons, while autonomic ganglia house cell bodies of _______ nerves.
sensory; postganglionic
In the ANS the first neuron is contained in the ______ and its fibers are known as ______.
CNS preganglionic
The second neuron in the ANS is contained in the ______ with fibers known as _______.
autonomic ganglion; postganglionic
The somatic nervous system has _____ neurons involved, while the ANS has ____.
1; 2
The Sympathetic nervous system ______ respiration, BP, HR, and blood flow to the skeletal muscles, _____ the pupils and _____ visceral function.
increases; dilates; slows down
The parasympathetic nervous system ______ respiration, BP, HR, and blood flow to the skeletal muscles, _____ the pupils and _____ visceral function.
decreases; constricts; increases
The chemical mediator present in the synaptic vesicles of all preganglionic endings and at anatomically parasympathetic post ganglionic endings.
acetylcholine
The only organ that receives preganglionic fibers is the _____ , which releases ________.
Adrenal medulla; norepinephrine and epinephrine
The sympathetic nervous system is also called the _____, because its nuclei are located ______.
thoracolumbar division; T1 to L3
The preganglionic fibers of the thoracolumbar division leave the CNS through the ______ roots and the white communicating rami of the ______.
ventral; thoracic and lumbar nerves
The chemical mediator of the postganglionic fibers of the sympathetic system is ______.
norepinephrin
Nerve fibers that release Ach are known as _____, while fibers that release norepinephrine are _____.
cholinergic; adreneric
Sweat glands and blood vessels of the skeletal muscle are innervated by ______ fibers.
adregenic
Parasympathetic system nuclei are located in the ______, ______, and _____.
medulla; midbrain; sacral spinal cord
Preganglionic fibers of the Parasympathetic system leave through the ______.
cranial nerves III,VII,IX and X
and the 2nd,3rd, and 4th sacral spinal nerves.
The parasympathetic system is also called the _______.
cranialsacral division
In the brain the ____ matter forms the cortex and the _____ matter forms the medulla.
gray; white
The gray matter of the cerebral cortex has ____ layers.
6
The outer layer of the cerebellar cortex that has a sparseness of nuceli and dendrites
Molecular layer
The central layer cells of the cerebellar cortex with conspicous cell bodies and highly developed dendrites.
purkinje cells
The inner layer cells of the cerebellar cortex with very small neurons and is compactly disposed.
granule layer
In the spinal cord ____ matter is peripheral and _____ matter is central.
White; gray
_____ is remanants of the lumen of the embryonic neural tube.
central canal
The gray matter in the legs of the spinal cord H form the anterior horns and contain _____ neurons whose axons make up the ____ roots.
motor; ventral
The gray matter in the arms of the spinal cord H form the posterior horns which receive _____ fibers from the ____ ganglia.
sensory; spinal
____ neurons convey impulses from receptors to the CNS, _____ neurons convey impulses from the CNS or from ganglia to effector cells, and _____ neurons form an integrating network between them both.
sensory; motor; interneurons
The most abundant neuron is _____ and it is ____ polar
interneuron; multi
The outer most CT that is continuous with the peristoneum of the skull.
dura mater
The delicate CT loosely joined to the dura matter
arachnoid matter
The arachnoid matter has _____ that extend to the pia mater.
arachnoid trabeculae
The space bridged by the arachnoid trabeculae is the ______ space, which contains ____.
subarachnoid; CSF and large blood vessels
The ____ mater lies on the brain and spinal cord and is continuous with the perivascular CT of the blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord.
pia
Both surfaces of the arachnoid, the inner surface of the pia mater, and the trabeculae are covered with a thin ______ epthelial layer.
squamous
The dura mater is seperated from the arachnoid by the thin _____.
subdural space
The BBB is contributed by the ______ cells of the capillaries through ______ junction which are also continuous with the end feet of ________.
endothelial; tight; astrocytes
_____ can easily enter the BBB, while _____ passes through active transport
oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and small lipid soulable material;
glucose, AA, certain vitamins
Within the ventricles of the brain, the ____ composed of folds of _____ mater produce CSF.
choroid process; pia
CSF fills the ____, ____, and _______.
ventricles, central canal, subarachnoid space
CSF is important for _____ and _____.
metabolism of the CNS; mechanical shock
Decreased absorption of CSF back to the venous system leads to _____
hydrocephalus
In muscle tissue, the cell is known as a ______, the cytoplasm as _______, cell membrane as ______, the SER as _______, and occasionally mitochondria as _______.
Muscle fiber; sarcoplasm; sarcolemma; sarcoplasmic reticulum; sarcosomes
All three muscle types are derived from the ______, except for the smooth muscle of the eyeball which is derived from the ______.
Mesoderm; ectoderm
The functions of skeletal muscle are ______,______, and ________.
Movement of bones; posture; heat production
Skeletal muscle is known as a _____, because it is multinucleated.
Syncytium
Skeletal muscle cells are formed from the fusion of precursor cells known as ______.
Myoblasts
Each skeletal muscle cell is _______ and the strength of each fiber is directly dependent on its _______.
Cylindrical; diameter
In adult muscle the precursor cell that can form new muscle when tissue is damaged.
Satellite cells
Red: type I skeletal muscles are naturally red colored, are ____ twitch but repetitive, _____ fatigued, _____ in diameter, ______ in myoglobin, _____ in density for mitochondria, and perform _______ for energy.
Slow; not easily; smallest; rich; largest; oxidative phosphorylation
______ skeletal muscles are naturally pale colored, are ____ twitch, _____ fatigued, _____ in diameter, ______ in myoglobin, _____ in density for mitochondria, and perform _______ for energy.
White: type IIB; fast; easily; largest; poor; smallest; glycolysis
Skeletal muscle is responsible for _____ movement, and is innervated by _____ neurons.
Voluntary; somatic motor
Fibers that share qualities between the 2 extremes of red and white fibers.
Intermediate: Type IIA
Red fibers generate _____ muscle tension than white fibers.
less
Red: Type I fibers make up _____ motor units, which are typically found in the ______ and the ______.
Slow twitch; limbs; long muscles of the back.
White: Type ___ fibers make up _____ motor units, which are the principle fibers in the ______ and the ______.
IIA; fast-twitch; extraocular muscles; muscles of the digits
_____ is the sheath of dense CT that surrounds the entire muscle, and has ____ and _____ penetrate through it.
Epimysium; major vascular; nerve supplies
_____ is the sheath of CT that surrounds the entire fasicle, and has ____ and _____ travel through it.
Perimysium; blood vessels; nerves
_____ is the delicate sheath of CT that surrounds the entire muscle, and has ____ and _____ present, running parallel with the muscle fibers.
Endomysium; small diameter capillaries; the finest neuronal branches
A muscle is made of bundles of _______
Fascicle
A fasciculus is made of _______
Muscle fibers
A muscle fiber contains ______, which are composed of bundles of myofilaments, that are repeating assemblies of thick and thin filaments
Myofibril
Thin and thick filaments are ________.
Myofilaments
The functional unit of each myofibril, composed of accessory proteins, myosin, and actin.
sarcomere
Under a light microscope, the light bands are _____, and have a thin visible center called the _______,while the dark bands are _____.
I bands; z line; A bands
The H band only contains ______, while the I band only contains _____.
Myosin; actin filaments
The center of the sarcomere.
M line
During shortening of the sarcomere, the _____ and _____ shorten, while the ____ stays constant.
I band; H band; A band
Thin filaments are _____, polymer formed from _____ actin molecules.
F- actin; G- Actin
Thick filaments are ______ molecules that aggregate in parallel but ______ array, with heads pointing _____ from the center of the sarcomere at a ____ angle.
Myosin II; staggered; away; 60 degrees
The ____ end of the thin filament is attached to the Z disk.
Plus
Each G- actin site has a binding site for _____.
Myosin
_____ blocks the active site on actin.
Tropomyosin
_____ and ____ mask the myosin binding sites on actin molecules.
Troponin and tropomyosin
_____ consists of a double helix of 2 polypeptides to form filaments that run in the groove of the F filament.
Tropomyosin
One troponin complex contains 3 globular subunits with _____ binding to _____ anchoring the troponin complex, _____ binding to ____ in the initiation of contraction, and _____ that usually inhibits the actin myosin interaction.
TnT; tropomyosin; TnC; calcium ions; TnI
Calcium binds on ____ causing its configuration to change, causing _____ to move away from the actin- myosin binding sites.
Troponin; tropomyosin
The myosin II molecule is composed of 2 ___ chains and 2 pairs of ___ chains.
heavy; light
The myosin head has 2 binding sites, binding ___ and _____, as well as _____ activity.
Actin; ATP; ATPase
When myosin binds to the actin filament, ______ is released and the head bends toward the ___.
ADP and P; H zone
When the myosin head bends toward the H zone, ___ binds to the ____, releasing the myosin head from the actin.
ATP; ATPase
____ is split, in order for myosin to resume its original position.
ATP
As long as there is ____ and ____ present, the sarcomere will continue to shorten, but if no ____ is present, the binding will not release, which is the basis for ______.
Calcium ions; ATP; ATP; Rigor Mortis
Myosin can be cut into a heavy and light _____ with ______.
Meromyosin; trypsin
The _____ can be cut with ____ to form the S1 and ___ pieces.
Heavy meromyosin; papain; S2
Thin filaments are helped to be anchored and bundled into parallel arrays with ____ at the z disc.
Alpha actinin
______ constitutes the M line where _____ is held.
Myomesin; myosin
____, a very elastic, spring like protein that connects the thick filament to the z disc
titin
An elongated non elastic protein that connects to the z disc and the tip of the thin filament.
nebulin
A myosin binding protein that serves the same function as myomesin.
C protein
Actin capping protein.
tropomodulin
One thick filament is surrounded by ___ thin filaments.
6
_____ is an invagination of the plasma membrane extend deep into the interior of the fiber and facilitate the conduction of waves of depolarization along the sarcolemma.
t- tubules
The rapid delivery and removal of calcium is done by the _____ and _____ derived from the plasma membrane.
sarcoplasmic reticulum; T system
Under a LM a myofibril is recognized by its _____ outer covering.
sarcoplasmic reticulum
At the junction of A and I bands the sarcoplasmic reticulum form ______.
terminal cisterna
The complex of T- tubule and 2 _____ form the ____.
terminal ciserna; triad
In the triad, the ____ release and reaccumulate calcium, while the _____ provides for their excitation.
terminal cisterna; t- tubule
As Calcium interacts with troponin, _____ simultaneously returns calcium into the ____.
calcium ion activated ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum; terminal cisterna
The muscle- nerve junction is known as the _____ or ____.
myoneural junction; motor end plate
_______ are folds of muscle cells in the synaptic cleft.
secondary synaptic cleft
Individual muscle fibers do not show _____ contraction, but rather have a _____ response.
graded; all or none
Growth of skeletal muscle is increase in the ____ of a fiber, known as _____.
volume; hypertrophy
Skeletal muscle can be regenerated as long as the ____ and ____ are intact.
external lamina; satellite cells
___ is a toxin produced by clostridium botulinum that interferes with the release of ____ and leads to _____
botulism; ACH; paralysis
_____ is an autoimmune disease characterized by muscle weakness, where autoantibodies attach to ____ receptors.
Myasthenia gravis; ACH
_____ is the receptor in the stretch reflex.
Muscle spindle
The 4 major components of blood are ____,____,____, and _____.
RBC; WBC; platelets; plasma`
____ are cell fragments, important for blood clotting.
platelets
The prteinacious solution that imparts blood its fluid property.
plasma
The clear yellow fluid that remains after blood coagulates.
serum
Formed elements in plasma are ____ and ___.
erythrocytes; leukocytes
When centrifugation and anticoagulants are added to blood the supernatant is the _____, and under it are the _____, ______, and _______.
plasma; platelets; WBC; RBC
A ___ is an estimation of total RBC levels, which should read _______.
hematocrit; 35-45%
After centrifugation and anticoagulation of a blood sample, the ____ is the upper part of packed cells that is about ___ % of the entire sample, and contains the ____ and ____.
buffy coat; 1%; leukocytes; platelets
RBCs in circulation is regulated to meet ____, and is adjusted by the main hormone ____ that is secreted by the ______.
oxygen carrying needs; erythropoeitin; kidneys and liver in fetus
RBC is in a ____ shape to maximize their ___ and to ____.
biconcave; SA/V ratio; fit through small capillaries
____ is fragile different sized blood cells.
anisocytosis
During formation RBC lose their ______ and only keep their ____.
nucleus and organelles; cytoskeleton
RBC get energy through _____, using glucose in the _____.
glycolisis; plasma
The enzyme that allows RBC to carry carbon dioxide.
carbonic anhydrase
RBC cell membranes eventually rupture or they are ______ in the ________.
phagocytosed; spleen, liver or bone marrow.
Immature erythrocytes that have a slight basophilia.
reticulocytes
Hb results in RBC's ____ staining property
acidophilic
Blood smears use _____ stains under the LM.
Wrights
Eosin is ____ dye that appears _____, while methylene blue is a _____ dye.
acidic; red; basic
The peripheral proteins in which ____ is predominant form a cytoskeleton lattice on the ____ surface of the RBC cell membrane.
spectrin; interior
The lattice in RBC is anchored to the cell membrane by _____ to Band 3 and short actin pieces to ___ and ____.
ankyrin; band 4; glycophorin
Defective ankyrin or spectrin cause problems with _____.
biconcave shape
____ is an integral protein that transports carbon dioxide from inside to outside of the cell.
Band 3
Erythroblastosis fetalis occurs in _____ newborns delivered by _____ mothers.
Rh D +; Rh D -
Administration of _____ will prevent Rh incompatibility reactions in future pregnancies.
anti- D antibodies (RhoGAM)
The A,B and O locus are on chromosome ___
9 at a single locus
Hereditary spherocytosis is a ____ disorder, which is characterized by defective ____ or _____ .
somatic dominant; ankryin; spectrin
Symptoms of Heriditary spherocytosis include
increased anemia and billirubin
____ is the movement of leukocytes across the endothelial lining of blood vessels to interstitial fluid.
diapedesis
The granulocyte cells are ______, which are acidophilic, _____ which are basophilic, and _____ which are azurophilic.
eosiophils; basophils; neutrophils
The agranulocytes are ____ and _____.
lymphocytes; monocytes
Neutrophils have nuceli that are _____.
polymorphonuclear, having severl lobes linked with chromatin
____ are the bodies first line of defense for infections and the major component of pus.
neutrophils
The primary granules of neutrophils are _____ and also contain the unique enzyme ____.
nonspecific lysosomes; myoleperoxidases (MPO)
The secondary granules of neutrophils are ____ and contain ______.
specific granules; antimicrobe agents (lysozyme, lactoferrin)
Tertiary granules of neutrophils contain _____, ___, and _____ which facilitates migration by ____.
cathepsins; glycoproteins; gelatinase; breaking fibers of CT
In neutrophils ____ granules are the first attackers of microbes, while ____ granules fuse with phagosome microbes if they are still alive.
secondary granules; azurophilic granules
____ are seen in female neutrophils.
Drum stick chromosome (Barr body)
____ are a younger form of neutrophil which are distinguished by their ____.
Band form; non segmented U shaped nucleus
WBC that have a bilobed nucleus _____, and function in respone to ____ and _____.
eosinophils; allergic reactions; parasitic infections
The specific granules of eosinophils are in the ______ which is very basic, and the _____, which contain histaminase, asylsulfatases, RNAase, and cathepsin.
Internum; Externum
The ____ with its _____ in eosinophils accounts for its major basic protein which is ____.
Internum; cytoxin
The externum of _____ contain histaminase asylsufatase, RNAase and Cathepsin.
eosinophils
____ down regulate the release of eosinophils from the bone marrow.
corticosteroids
_____ specific granulocytes stain metachromatically with basic dye because of _____.
basophils; heparin sulfate
Basophils compared to other granulocytes have ____ and ___ granules.
fewer; irregular shaped
Basophils contain ____ and _____ that cause ______, and also are capable of generating leukotrienes.
heparin sulfate; histamine; vasodilation
____ supplement mast cells in ______.
basophils; immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis)
Depending on different markers on cell membranes, lymphocytes can be divided into _____ and _____, and into _____ which dont have markers at all.
B cell; T Cell; Natural Killer
T- cells can differentiate into ____, ____, and ______.
helper T cells; cytoxic T cells; Suppressor T cells
B cells are involved in ____ immunity while T cells are involved in _____ immunity.
humoral; cell mediated
Lymphocytes do not become _____, but rather are ____ stimulated to enlarge and differentiate into ____ and ___ cells.
phagocytotic; Antigen; effector; memory
IgE are present on ______ WBCs.
Basophil membranes
____are the only leukocytes that return from the tissue to the blood during diapedesis.
lymphocytes
_____ have a spherical nucleus with ____ cytoplasm.
small lymphocytes; scanty
_____ have an eccentrical nucleus that is oval, horeshoe, or kidney shaped.
monocytes
_____ are precursors in the blood to macrophages.
monocytes
Monocytes have a ____ color in smears because of its ______ granules.
bluish- grey; azuophilic