Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

111 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the primary layers of the Digestive Tract?
Mucosa (mucous membrane)
What tissue is found in the mucosa layer of the digestive tract?
Lamina propria
Muscularis mucosa
What is the function of the epithelium found in the digestive tract?
Highly selective for absorption, promotes digestion, produces hormones, produces mucous for lubrication and protection of other cells
What layer of the mucosa promotes movement to propel and mix food?
Muscularis mucosa (inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle
What is found in the submucosa layer of the digestive tract?
Dense connective tissue w/ many blood and lymph vessels, glands and lymphoid tissue

submucosal(meissner's) autonomic nerve plexus
Where is the myenteric (Auerbach's) autonomic nerve plexus found?
in the muscularis layer of the digestive tract
What lines the oral cavity
stratified squamous epithelium (karatin & non-karatinized)
Where is non-karatin stratified squamous epithelium found in the oral cavity
soft palate, lips, cheeks and floor of mouth
Where is karatinized stratified squamous epithelium found in the oral cavity?
hard palate and gums
How is the tongue divided?
1/2 posterior end containing lingual tonsils
2/3 anterior end
Separated by a V shaped boundary
What are the types of papillae on the tongue?
Which type of papillae contains taste buds?
Which type of papillae contains no taste buds?
What is the function of the taste bud?
to detect saltiness, sourness, sweetness, bitterness
What type of cells are found in the taste bud?
taste pores, taste cells w/microvilli, and supporting cells
What type of tissue is found lining the pharynx?
non-keratinized statified squamous epithelium
What structures does the pharynx contain?
palatine tonsils and mucous salivary glands
What is the role of the circular and longitudinal layers of skeletal muscles in the pharynx
form the supportive wall of the pharynx (constrictor muscles
How many teeth do adults have?
Adults - 32 permanent teeth
Children - 20 deciduous teeth
What are the external regions of the tooth?
Crown - part of tooth above gingiva

Neck - region near the gumline

Root - part of tooth below gum
__________ covers crown of tooth
___________ covers roots of tooth
what is the part of the tooth where enamel and cementum meet?
The cervix
________ surrounds the pulp cavity and rootcanal, and deep to the enamel and cementum
Contains odontoblasts, fibroblasts, thin collagen fibrils, ground substance and blood vessels
pulp cavity
Where are Sharpey's fibers found?
peridontal ligament
What is the function of the peridontal ligament?
anchor the cementum of tooth firmly into the surrounding alveolar bone
What is found in Dentin?
type I collagen, fibrils, glycosaminoglycans, phophoproteins, phospholipids and calcium salts (hydroxyapatite crystals)
What secretes the organic matrix of dentin?
What is the hardest component of the body?
What are the components of enamel?
96% mineral, 1% organic matter, 3% water
What secretes the matrix of the enamel?
What is the structure that connects the laryngopharynx to the stomach?
What lines the esophagus?
mucosa is non-keratinized stratified sqamous
What layers are present in the mucosa of the espohagus?
lamina propria (containing mucus secreting esophageal cardiac glands near stomach)
muscularis mucosa
What is the function of the mucus-secreting esophageal glands?
to facilitate transport of food and protection of mucosa
What are the differences in the muscularis mucosa as you descend the esophagus?
Upper 1/3: skeletal muscle
Middle 1/3: mixture of skeletal and smooth
Lower 1/3: mostly smooth muscle
How would you describe the esophageal sphincter?
A thickening of circular muscle layer near the opening of the stomach
What is the outer layer of the esophagus called?
serosa or adventitia
What is the function of the stomach?
mixed exocrine/endocrine organ that digests food and secretes hormones
Specifically what does the stomach do?
Continues digestion of carbs
Adds acidic fluid to ingested food
Transforms ingested material into viscous chyme
Promotes inital digestion of proteins w/ pepsin
Produces gastric lipase to assist digestion of triglycerides
What are the gross regions of the stomach?
cardia, fundus, body, pylorus
What two gross regions are histologically similar?
fundus and body
What feature is present the undistended stomach, but not in distended stomach?
Describe mucosa layer in stomach
simple columnar epith. w/invaginations (gastric pits)
What is the purpose of the mucus gel secreted by all cells in the stomach
defense (adheres firmly to epithelial cells)
Which cells in the stomach secrete bicarbonate?
surface epithelial cells
In what direction are the muscularis arranged in the stomach?
3 directions
external is longitudinal, middle is circular, internal is oblique
Where is the cardia region found in the stomach?
Narrow circular band between esophagus and remainder of stomach
What type of glands are found in the mucosa of the cardia region?
simple or branched tubular cardiac glands which produce mucus and lysozome.
What type of glands are found in the fundus region of the stomach?
3-7 gastric glands that open into the bottome of each gastric pit
Name the cells (5) found in the gastric glands of the fundus/body?
stem cells, mucous neck cells, parietal(oxyntic)cells, enteroendocrine cells, chief cells
Where are stem cells found in the gastric glands
found in isthmus and neck regions
What are feature of stem cells found in the gastric glands?
Low columnar w/ nuclei near their bases
high rate of mitosis
Some ascend to replace the pit & surface mucous cells, other differentiate into other cells
Where are mucous neck cells found?
in clusters (or singly) between parietal cells of the necks of gastric glands
What is the function of mucous neck cells?
to secrete mucus (which is different that surface mucus)
What is function of parietal cells?
secrete H+ and Cl-, potassium chloride and other stuff which is impt in Vit B12 metabolism
Where are parietal cells found in the gastric glands?
mostly in upper half
What is histological description of oxyntic cells?
rounded or pyramindal w/large nucleus, and pink cytoplasm. Contain many mitochondria and a deep invagination of apical membrane
What is another name for parietal cells?
oxyntic cells
What is the function of enteroendocrine cells in the stomach?
to porduce serotonin primarily in fundus
What is another name for the zymogenic cells?
chief cells
Where are chief cells found?
lower regions of gastric glands
What is found in the granules of chief cells?
What will chief cells in humans secrete?
lipase (along with other proteins)
What is different with the gastric pits in the pylorus vs the fundus?
the pits in the pylorus are deeper than in the fundus
What is characteristic of pyloric glands?
shorter coiled secretory portions
What does the pyloric gland secrete?
mucus and lysozyme
What type of cells are found in the pyloric glands?
G cells - enteroendocrine cells
D cells - enteroendocrine cells
What does the G cell secrete?
gastrin which activates parietal cell production of HCL
What is the function of the D cell?
secrete somatostatin which inhibits gastrin secretion, thereby decreasing HCl production
What is the function of the small intestine?
Site of terminal food digestion, nutrient absorption and endocrine secretion
How long is the small intestine?
about 5 meters
What are the gross regions of the small intestine?
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What are teh permanent fold in the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine called?
plica circulares
Where are the plica circulares most developed?
What type of tissue are intestinal villi composed?
outgrowths of simple columnar epith. and lamina propria
What is found between intestinal villi?
openings to the intestinal glands
What are M cells?
specialized epth. cells overlying lymphoid follicles of peyer's patches
What is the function of the M cells?
endocytose antigens and transport them to underlying macrophages and lymphoid cells
What feature facilitates the transit between M cells and cells in lamina propria?
An incomplete basal lamina
What type of cells are found in the epithelial layer of small intestine that release secretory granules by exocytosis?
endocrine cells
What is contained in the lamina propria of the small intestine?
loose connective tissue w/ blood and lymph vessels, nerve fibers and smooth muscle fibers
What is found in the submucosa of the small intestine?
clusters of duodenal glands
What do the duodenal glands secrete and why?
mucous and alkaline to protect the duodenal mucous membrane an dto provide optimum pH for pancreatic enzyme action
Describe muscularis layer of small intestine?
inner circular layer and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
Outer layer of small intestine is called?
What is histological feature of the absorptive cells?
Tall columnar cell with an oval nucleus
Brush border on apex and core of actin microfilament
By what factor is surface area increased with the absorptive cell's physical features?
about 600 fold
What is secreted by absorptive cells?
Disaccharides and peptidases
What do absorptive cells absorb?
What does the goblet cell secrete and why?
mucus to protect mucosal lining
Where are goblet cells found?
epithelial layer of small intestine, interspersed between absorptive cells. Less abundant in douodenum but increases toward ileum
Where are paneth's cells located?
at basal portion of intestinal glands
What do paneth's cells contain?
Large amounts of RER, large eosinophilic secretory granules which contain lysozyme
Through what network are nutrient absorbed in small intestine?
capillary network, to veins that eventually drain into the liver via the hepatic portal vein
Through what network are lipids absorbed in the small intestine?
A lacteal absorbs lipids, draining into larger lymph vessels and eventually leading into the cisterna chyli of lymphatic system
What is the function of the large intestine?
absorption of water, and formation of fecal mass and production of mucus.
How long is the large intestine?
approx. 6 feet (2 meters)
What are the gross regions of the large intestine?
cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anus
Where are fold found in the large intestine?
in the rectal region called rectal columns
Are there villi in the large intestine?
What is the lining of the large intestine composed of?
simple columnar epithelium except in the anal region which has keratinized stratified squamous
What is the histological description of the intestinal glands?
long and have many goblet and absorptive cells and few enteroendocrine cells
What is found in the lamina propria of the large intestine?
large amounts of GALT. In the anal region also contains a plexus of large viens
What is found in the muscularis layer of the large intestine?
complete inner layer of smoothmuscle and 3 incomplete thick longitudinal bands of smooth muscle (teniae coli)
What is the teniae coli?
3 incomplete thick longitudinal bands of smooth muscle found in the large intestine
What is found in the serous layer of the large intestine
tabs of adipose tissue (appendices epiploicae)
What is the appendix
Evagination of the cecum
What is found in the appendix?
large amounts of lymphoid follicles
fewer and shorter intestinal glands
no teniae coli
How is cell renewal performed in the digestive tract?
stem cells produce new cells constantly by mitosis
They will migrate and differentiate into other cell types