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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Resolution is:
the smallest distance between two points in which they can be distinguished as two separate objects.
Working distance for the light microscope is approximately _________
0.25 uM
Red blood cells are approximately __________.
7.5 uM
Most slides are routinely stained with a combination of 2 dyes:
Hematoxylin and Eosin
Hematoxylin is a _____________, ____________ in colour
basophilic, blue-purple
Tissue components that stain blue-purple are:
DNA, RNA, heterochromatin, nucleoli, ribsomes
Tissue components that stain pink-orange are:
cytoplasm, mitochondria, secretory granules
H&E slides are overstained for __________ and understained for ___________
eosin, hematoxylin
T/F The nucleolus is a membrane-bound structure
false, non-membrane bound
The nucleolus is the site of:
ribosomal RNA synthesis
____ chromosomes in most cells.
Active chromatin is called:
Inactive chromatin is called:
This type of chromatin is condensed, contains Barr Bodies in females densely stained and very dark and basophillic.
T/F In a metabollically inactive cell, no nuclei are visible
During interphase, this type of chromain is lightly stained:
DNA replication occurs during:
S phase
2N ---> 4N DNA occurs during
Interphase - S phase
A feature of prophase is:
chromosomes are condensed, coiled and visible as dark threads
Prophase ends with the disappearance of:
the nuclear membrane and nucleolus
The cell membrane is ______ thick
7-10 nM
Microfilaments are made of _________, also called thin filaments in muscle
features of centrioles:
rod shaped, 9 sets of triplets, 2 per cell
Mitochondria is _______________
Ribosomes are ____________
Ribosomes associated with the ER produce proteins for ________________
external use
RER is ________________
T/F The lysosome has more than 100 enzymes
Lysosomal storage disease is due to:
a lack of a particular enzyme
Heterophagy is:
the breakdown of materials brought into the cell by phagocytosis by fusion with primary lysosomes
Autophagy is:
the breakdown of intracellular materials by fusion with primary lysosomes
T/F Epithelia contain nerve endings
T/F Epithelia contain blood and lymphatic vessels
Epithelia rests on ______________ usually with connective tissue underneath
basal lamina
Cells are _______________
T/F Epithelia is constantly being replaced by newly formed cells (mitosis)
Functions of epithelia:
absorption, ion or gaseous exchange, secretion, protection, sensory, etc
Epithelia can undergo _________________
metaplasia - a change from one type of epithelium to another
T/F Epithelia are closely attached to each other, closely adherent
Describe simple epithelium
one layer (all in contact with the basal lamina)
List the four types of simple epithelium:
simple squamous
simple cuboidal
simple columnar
Describe stratified epithelium
more than one layer, classified according to shape of surface layer of cells
List the five types of stratified epithelium
-stratified squamous keratinized
-stratified squamous non-keratinized
-stratified cuboidal
-stratified columnar
Function of simple squamous epithelium is:
for ion and gaseous exchange, diffusion, filtration
Where are simple squamous cells located?
air sacs of lungs (alveoli), lining of all blood and lymph vessles, Bowman's capsule of the kidney, thin loop of henle
What is the function of simple cuboidal cells?
secretion and absorption
Where are simple cuboidal cells located?
germinal epithelium of ovary, kidney tubules, lining of ducts of various glands, bile ducts, bronchioles
What is the function of columnar epithelial cells?
secretion, absorptioin
Where are simple columnar cells found?
uterus, uterine tube, stomach, intestines, gall bladder, part of cervix
What is the function of pseudostratified columnar cells?
secretion and absorption
Where are pseudostratified columnar cells found?
respiratory passages, male reproductive system, some of male urethra
What is the function of stratified squamous keratonized and non-keratinized cells?
Where is stratified squamous keratinized found?
skin (epidermis)
Where are stratified squamous nonkeratinized cells found?
oral cavity, esophagus, vagina, cornea, portions of cervix, nasal cavity, urethra, rectum
Describe the structure of basal lamina
tough, acellular, fibrous sheet underlying the epithelium
Basal lamina contains:
collagen (Type IV)
glycoproteins (laminin, entactin)
Functions of the basal lamina:
a) structural attachment and support
b) permeability barrier, filtration
c) helps determine cell polarity, differentiation and metabolism
d) guide or scaffold during regeneration after injury
Benign tumors are:
localized overgrowths in the area they arise
Malignant tumors:
invade adjacent tissues and spread (metastasize) to distant sites.
In order to metastasize, cells lose their cell to cell adhesions and then penetrate the _________________ to reach the underlying connective tissue.
basal lamina
Cilia are motile processes composed of ________________
________________ are non-motile projections to increase available surface area, usually for absorption
Microvilli are composed of:
Tight junctions (zona occludens) completely ____________________ the cell
Blood brain barrier is made up of __________________
tight junctions
Gap junction (macula communicans)permit flow of small molecules from cell to cell, links cells ________________ and _____________________
ionically and electronically