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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functional unit of all living matter
Composed of cells and extracellular matrix. An aggregation of similarly secialized cells united in the performance of a particular function.
Composed of varrying proportions of two or more tissues, integrated to perform a particular function. Organs divide into Parenchyma (functional elements) and Stroma (supporting elements)
Organ Systems
Composed of various organs that have similar or related functions. May be: major anatomical entities (CNS, Pulmonary system) or more diffusely arranged (immune system, endocrine system)
Study of tissues of the body and how these tissues are arranged to constitute organs
Four fundamental tissues (Types of each)
Epithelial - Covering, glandular. Connective - specialized, proper, supportive. Muscle - smooth, cardiac, skeletal. Nervous - Nerve cells, glial cells.
Study of suffering or disease
Any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any part, organ, or system
Number of new cases of a specific disease occurring during a certain period. (# of new cases in a year)
Number of cases of a disease that are present in a population at one point in time (# of people currently living with ___)
Cause or origin of a disease
Cellular events and reactions and other pathologic mechanisms occurring in the development of disease. (What is happening cellularly as a result of disease)
Way by which a disease manifests itself, or makes itself evident (alterations in cell, tissue, or organ morphology and clinical signs (objective evidence) and symptoms (subjective evidence))
Forecast as to the probable outcome of an attack of disease
General Pathology
Examines the fundamental cellular and tissue responses to pathologic stimuli (what happens at cellular level)
Systemic Pathology
Examines organ or organ system responses to pathologic stimuli
Process used to preserve tissue structure and molecular composition. Done ASAP after tissue removal. Usually reduces and arrests biological activity
Types of Fixation
Chemical Fixatives, Physical Agents
Chemical Fixatives
(i.e. formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde) Immersion or Perfusion – Perfusion is best, use body’s own circulator system to get fixative around organs.
Physical Agents
(i.e., heat or cold) Microwave or submersion
Process to render tissue in a condition that can be sectioned. Extract water and replace with a solid medium
Types of Embedding
Paraffin (light microscopy), Plastic Resins (electron microscopy)
Obtain tissue sections that are thin enough for light or electrons to pass through (1-10 micrometers)
Staining and Types
Used since most tissues are colorless. Conventional, Cytochemistry/Histochemistry, Immunocytochemistry
Conventional Staining – Types
Localization based on charge. Adds contrast, not specific. Use of Dyes or Heavy Metals
Conventional Staining Dyes – Basic Dyes
Basic Dyes – (Hematoxylin) stain tissues with acids ‡ blue or purple. Basophilic tissues such as ER and nucleus
Conventional Staining Dyes – Acid Dyes
Acid Dyes – (Eosin) stain tissues with bases ‡ red or pink. Acidophilic tissues such as cytoplasm of most cells, mitochondria, secretory granules, collagen.
Conventional Staining Heavy Metals
Metals bind to tissues with a positive charge
Heavy Metals – Dark Areas
Dark Areas – Electron Dense, affinity for heavy metals
Heavy Metals – Light Areas
Light Areas – Electron Lucent, without affinity for heavy metals
Cytochemistry/Histochemistry Staining – Types
Used for identifying specific substances. Localization based on chemical groups. Localization based on enzyme activity.
Immunocytochemistry Staining
Used for identifying proteins. Localization based on high affinity interactions between antigen and its antibody. In muscle, myosin heavy chains can be localized using antibodies to specific myosin heavy chains isoforms or variants (fiber typing)
Eukaryotic Cells vs. Prokaryotic Cells
Eukaryotic Cells have a nucleus, Prokaryotic Cells have no nucleus
3 Main components of the Cytoplasm
Plasma Membrane, Organelles, Cytoskeleton
Structure of the Plasma Membrane (3)
Lipid Bilayer, Proteins, Glycocalyx
Lipid Bylayer
Phospholipids with hydrophilic heads orientated outward, hydrophilic tails towards the center.
Proteins of the Plasma Membrane
Integral – Directly incorporated within lipid bilayer, often span the membrane. Peripheral – Associated with the external or internal leaflet of the lipid bilayer
External surface of the cell. Composed of carbhydrate chains linked to membrane lipids and proteins and of cell secreted glycoproteins, and proteoglycans. (Recognition of other structures)
Function of The Plasma Membrane (3)
Selective Barrier, Intercellular Communication
Selective Barrier
Plasma membrane is barrier for material exchange between cell and its environment
Intercellular Communication
Cell recognition and attachment to other cells and extracellular molecules.
Signal Transduction
Signals from a cell’s exterior to a cell’s interior: exchange of molecules through channels between adjacent cells. Or, extracellular signaling molecules or messengers, such as hormones, chemical mediators, neurotransmitters and receptor proteins on the plasmalemma.
Organelles (6)
Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Rough ER, Smooth ER, Golgi Complex, Lysosome
Mitochondria – Structure
Spherical or ovoid. Inner and outer membrane, inner with folds called Cristae. Spread out in cytoplasm or clustered where utilization of energy is greatest. Self replicating
Mitochondria – Function
ATP Production via oxidative phosphorylation and ETC. Storage and conversion of energy.
Ribosomes – Structure
Small, round particles (no membrane). Composed of rRNA and proteins. Arranged as clusters in the cytoplasm (polyribosimes) or attached to Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough ER)
Ribosomes – Function
Protein Synthesis
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum – Structure
Flattened membranous sacs (single or multiple) in parallel stacks enclosing a space (Cisterna). Polyribosomes on cytosolic surface of membrane. Continuous with nuclear envelope
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum – Function
Segregate proteins not destined for cytosol. Protein synthesis and post-translational protein modifications.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum – Structure
Tubular membranous without polyribosomes. Long and asymmetrical. Continuous with Rough ER
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum – Function
Steroid and phospholipids synthesis. Detox of certain hormones and noxious substances. Calcium storage and mobiliation. In muscle – sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Golgi Complex – Structure
Flattened membranous sacs, usually in stacks
Golgi Complex – Function
Post-translational protein modifications. Packages and “addresses” products synthesized by the cell (Post office)
Lysosomes – Structure
Spherical, single mambrane limited vesicles. Contain large number of hydrolytic enzymes
Lysosomes – Function
Intracellular digestion and turnover of cellular components.
Complex of structural proteins (Microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments)
Cytoskeleton – Microtubules
(Largest) Globular protein subunits. Provide basis for several complex cytoplasmic structures (cilia, flagella, mitotic structures)
Cytoskeleton – Microfilaments
(Smallest) Actin – Globular protein subunits, double helix.
Cytoskeleton – Intermediate Filaments
Several different proteins, unique to different cell types.
Cytoskeleton – Function
Intracellular transport, cell movement, develop and maintain cell shape.
Position of nucleus is specific. Composed of: Nuclear envelope, chromatin, nucleolus, nuclear matrix
Nuclear Envelope – Structure
Two parallel unit membranes separated by a perinuclear space. All continuous with ER. Nuclear pores provide controlled pathways between nucleus and cytoplasm
Nuclear Envelope – Function
Selective Barrier
Chromatin – Structure
Depends on degree of uncoiling. Heterochromatin (Hc) – Highly coiled, appears clumpy. Darkly stained and electron dense. Euchromatin (Ec) – Less coiled, appears dispersed. Lightly staining and electron lucent.
Chromatin – Function
Heterochromatin – Less active in RNA synthesis. Euchromatin – More active in RNA synthesis
Nucleolus – Structure
Spherical heterogenous structures. Lightly staining region – DNA which encodes for rRNA. Darkly staining – contain maturing ribosomes
Nucleolus – Function
Ribosomal RNA synthesis and ribosome subunit assembly.
Nuclear Matrix
Composed of: Proteins, metabolites, ions, fibrillar structure. Contributes to formation of protein base to which DNA loops are bound.
Most connective tissue is derived from?
Mesenchyme, which is formed by mesenchymal cells derived from the mesoderm (middle layer of the embryo)
Typical Connective Tissue - Structure - Cells
Several different types, few overall per unit volume compared to other tissues.
Typical Connective Tissue - Structure - Extracellular Matrix (3)
Fibers, Ground Substance, Tissue Fluid
Typical Connective Tissue - Fibers (Formed By)
Formed by proteins.
Constitue the formed elements of the ECM
Typical Connective Tissue - Ground Substance (Formed By)
Formed by proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and glycoproteins.
Typical Connective Tissue - Function (7)
1 - Connect, anchor and support the body and its organs
2 - Binding and packing of tissues
3 - Defense against infection
4 - Tissue Repair
5 - Transport of nutrients and metabolic wastes btw tissues and circulatory system
6 - Reservoir of hormones controlling cell growth and differentiaion
7 - Fat storage for energy and thermal insulation
Synthesize fibers and ground substance
Adipose Cells (Fixed)
Store Fats (energy and insulation)
Mast Cells (Motile)
Immune Response - Produce and release molecules that participate in inflammation and mediate allergic reactions
Plasma Cells (Motile)
Immune Response - Produce antibodies
Macrophages (Fixed or Motile)
Immune Response - Phagocytize foreign material, produce and release molecules that participate in inflammation and process and present antigens.
Collagen is produced by? (4)
Other Cells
Collagen is composed of?
Types of Collagen?
At least 19 different
Type I is most abundant
Vary in structure and function
Classifications of Collagen? (4)
Fibril Forming
Fibril Associated
Network Forming
Anchoring Fibril Forming
Type I Collagen - Structure
Thick fibers, arranged in bundles
Loose to dense arrangement in tissues
Type I Collagen - Physical Properties (function)
Resists Tension
Type I Collagen - Distribution
Skin, Tendon, Ligament, Bone, Joint Capsule, Annulus Fibrosis
Type II Collagen - Structure
Fine fibrils
Loose arrangment in tissues
Type II Collagen - Physical Properties (function)
Resist pressure (compression)
Type II Collagen - Distribution
Nucleus Pulposus
Type III Collagen - Structure
Forms reticular fibers
Thin fibers that form a delicate meshwork in tissues
Type III Collagen - Physical Properties (function)
Maintain structure in expansible organs
Involved in tissue healing
Type III Collagen - Distribution
Skin, Smooth Muscle, Hematopoitic Organs
Elastin is produced by? (2)
Fibroblasts (fibers)
Smooth Muscle Cells (sheets)
Elastin is composed of?
Elastin core with peripherally oriented microfibrils (fibrillin)
Elastin - Structure
May be arranged as individual fibers and/or fenestrated sheets
Elastin - Physical Properties (Function)
Highly elastic (stretch 150% of length), allowing for expandability and storage of potential energy
Elastin - Distribution
Skin, Lungs, Blood Vessels
Ground Substance - Definition and components (3)
Fills space btw cells and fibers of CT.
Proteoglycans, GAGs, Glycoproteins
Proteoglycans (PG)
Protein core w/one or more polysaccharide side chains called sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
Linear polysaccharides formed of repeating disaccharide units
Sulfated GAGs
Chondroitin Sulfate (cartilage), Keratan Sulfate (cartilage, IVD), Dermatan Sulfate (skin), Heparan Sulfate (aorta, lung, liver)
Form proteoglycans
Interact w/other matrix components
Non-Sulfated GAGs
Hyaluronic Acid (cartilage, synovial fluid)
Aggregates proteoglycans subunits, but can also exist as a free molecule
Proteins w/attached carbohydrates
Several glycoproteins (fironectin, laminin, link protein, tenascin) isolated in connective tissue.
Stabilize matrix and link matrix to cells
Ground Substance - Physical Properties (Function)
Intensely Hydrated
Viscous, varying in consistency from semi0fluid to jelly-like.
Lubricates, resists compression (cushions) and acts as a barrier to the penetration of invaders (PG's hold water)
Types of specialized typical CT
Mucous, Elastic, Adipose
Specialized Atypical CT
Blood Cells
Several types
Few Cells Per Unit Volume
Blood ECM
Fibers: Plasma - Fibrin
Ground Substance: Serum
Blood Cell Formation
After birth, derived from stem cells located in bone marrow.
Liver and spleen are capable of blood cell production in response to demand.
Plasma - Structure
Aqueous solution that contains many substances including plasma proteins (some involved in clotting)
Plasma - Function
Erythrocytes - Function
Transport oxygen and carbondioxide
Granulocytes (3)
Eosinophils, Basophils, Neutrophils
Eosinophils - Function
Immune response - phagocytize helminths (worms) and antibody-antigen complexes formed during allergic reactions, and modulate the inflammatory process
Basophils - Function
Immune Response - Produce and release molecules that participate in inflammation and mediate allergic reactions
Neutrophils - Function
Immune Response - Phagocytize bacteria
Agranulocytes (2)
Lymphocytes, Monocytes
Lymphocytes - Function
Immune Response:
B Cells -> Humoral immunity (plasma cells)
T Cells -> Cellular immunity
Monocytes - Function
Differentiate into Macrophages in CT
Thrombocytes - Function
Clotting of blood - originate from fragmentation of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow.
Surface Coverings of Proper Connective Tissue (4)
Loose CT that invests individual collagen fibers (collagen type I), and binds bundles of fibers together, forming fascicles
Dense Irregular CT that invests entire tendon or ligament
Loose CT that invests the epitenon and therefore the entire tendon or ligament. Functions as an elastic sleeve.
Outer fibrous layer and an inner layer composed of two serious sheets encasing a synovial-type fluid. No paratenon in tendons with sheaths.
Musculotendinous Junction
Region of interdigitation between muscle and tendon
Ruptures occur more commonly at musculotendinous junction then mid-tendon due to transition zones in tendon
Osteotendinous Junctions
Transitional region between tendon and bone.
Consists of four layers moving from tendon -> fibrocartilage -> mineralized fibrocartilage -> bone
Gradual transition reduces the chance of rupture
Ligament Insertions - Direct
Superficial zone inserts into the periosteum and deep zone inserts into the bone.
Deep zone is a transitional region from ligament to bone
Ligament Insertions - Indirect
Primarily superficial zone which inserts into the periosteum
(Sharpey's fibers)
Aging of Fascia, Tendons, and Ligaments - Possible Structural Changes (3)
Accumulation of microfibrinous adhesions in intercellular space
Increased cross-links btw collagen molecules
Increased collagen content in connective tissue surrounding muscle
Aging of Fascia, Tendons, and Ligaments - Functional Changes
Loss of flexibility -> contributes to a loss of ROM, potentially leading to decreased function and increased risk of falls and other injuries.