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116 Cards in this Set

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Common stain for the nuclear region
hematoxylin (basic stain)
Common stain for the cytoplasmic region
eosin (acidic stain)
Obtaining a minute part of the tissue for a sample
Biopsy
Removal of whole or part of a tissue or organ
Surgical excision
Tissue sample after death of subject
Postmortem dissection
Stopping all biological activitiy
Fixation
Denatures proteins
Heat fixation
This type of fixation involves pumping substance through the body and usually results in dead subject
Perfusion
This type of fixation involves soaking the specimen in twenty times its volume and takes a long time
Immersion
A type of fixation that removes water gradually usually using alcohol
Dehydration
Fixation using a waxy substance that that allows the tissue to become solidified
Embedding
Primitive cell, bacteria
Prokaryotic cell
This type of cell has no membrane and no true membrane bound organells and simple chromosomes
Prokaryotic cell
Cells of higher plants and organisms
Eukaryotic Cell
Cell with well defined membrane, complex chromosomes and a whole host of membrane bound organelles.
Eukaryotic cells
Fundamental substance from which all living things are made
Protoplasm
Composition of protoplasm
Composition of protoplasm

-water 75%
-protein -> Amino Acids -> 10-20%
-lipids -> energy -> 2-3%
-carbs -> energy 1%
-salts -> balance 1%
analogous structure to the cell wall found in plant cells that is found in animal cells. Formed by oligosaccharides
Glycocalyx
The correct theory of cells is the
Fluid mosaic model
Three dimensional network of tubules - -functions: lipid synth and detox- exists in an acetic env. -organs that don't have a well developed rough ER.
Smooth ER
Function of Rough ER -
Protein synthesis - basophilic environment, caused by the ribosomes
translucent area close to the nucleus. Command center for cell division
Centrosomes
Fillaments of the cytoplasmic region
1. Microfilaments (think filament) - actin (6nm)
2. Intermediate Filaments (tono filament)
a. Keratin (hardening), neuro filaments, glial filaments (8-11nm)
3. Thick filaments -
a. myosin (15nm)
b. Microtubules (25nm) - lock end to end to form spindle rays for cell division
Example and size of a Microfilaments (think filament) -
actin (6nm), Function- contractile and may aid in motility
Location - found in various embryonic epithelium that undergo rapid cell shape changes. ex. intracellular muscle
Another name for Intermediate Filaments
(tono filament)/ Keratin, Neurofilaments, glial filaments
Examples of Intermediate Filaments (tono filament)
Keratin (hardening), neuro filaments, glial filaments (8-11nm)
Function - maintain cell shape, form spindle apparatus during mitotic division, form the core of cilia, flagella and sperm tails
Thick filaments -
myosin (15nm)
b. Microtubules (25nm) - lock end to end to form spindle rays for cell division
a single layer of cells that functions in
diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, and absorption.
Simple Epithelium
These types of cells are thin, and this
allows for the rapid passage of substances through them.
Squamous
cells are as tall as they are wide and are
shaped like cubes or hexagons. They may have microvilli
at their apical surface and function in either
secretion or absorption.
Cuboidal
cells are much taller than they are wide, like
columns, and protect underlying tissues. Their apical surfaces may have cilia or microvilli, and they often are specialized for secretion and absorption.
Columnar
found in parts of the body
where filtration (kidneys) or diffusion (lungs) are priority
processes and not found in body areas that are subjected to
wear and tear.
Simple squamous
simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart,
blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels is known as
endothelium
the type of simple squamous epithelium that forms the epithelial layer of serous membranes, such as the peritoneum, pleura, or pericardium, is called
mesothelium
type of epithelium
is found in organs such as the thyroid gland and kidneys
and performs the functions of secretion and absorption.
Simple cuboidal
Microvilli,
microscopic
fingerlike projections, increase the surface area of the
plasma membrane thus increasing the rate of
absorption by the cell. A type of simple columnar
Goblet cells
are modified columnar
cells that secrete mucus, a slightly sticky fluid, at their apical
surfaces. Before it is released, mucus accumulates in the upper
portion of the cell, causing that area to bulge out. A type of simple columnar
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
appears
to have several layers because the nuclei of the cells are
at various depths. Even though all the cells are
attached to the basement membrane in a single layer, some
cells do not extend to the apical surface.
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium,
the cells that extend to the surface either secrete mucus (goblet
cells) or bear cilia
keratinized stratified
squamous epithelium,
a tough layer of keratin is deposited in
the apical layer and several layers deep to it.
Keratin
is a
tough protein that helps protect the skin and underlying
tissues from microbes, heat, and chemicals.
Nonkeratinized
stratified squamous epithelium,
which is found, for example,
lining the mouth, does not contain keratin in the apical
layer and several layers deep to it and remains moist.
Lines heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, air sacs of lungs, glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule of kidneys, and
inner surface of the tympanic membrane (eardrum); forms epithelial layer of serous membranes (mesothelium), such as the
peritoneum.
Simple squamous ep
Function: Filtration, diffusion, osmosis, and secretion in serous membranes
Simple squamous ep
Location: Lines kidney tubules and smaller ducts of many glands, makes up the secreting portion of some glands such as
the thyroid gland, covers surface of ovary, lines anterior surface of capsule of the lens of the eye, and forms the pigmented
epithelium at the posterior surface of the eye. –
Simple cuboidal Ep.
Function of simple cuboidal ep -
Function: Secretion and absorption.
Lines most of the gastrointestinal tract (from the stomach to the anus), ducts of many glands,
and gallbladder. -
Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
Lines a few portions of upper respiratory tract, uterine (fallopian) tubes, uterus, some paranasal sinuses, and
central canal of spinal cord. -
Ciliated columnar epithelium
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lines
lines the airways of most of upper respiratory tract;
pseudostratified
nonciliated columnar epithelium
larger ducts of many glands, epididymis, and part of male urethra.
Function of Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Secretion and movement of mucus by ciliary action (ciliated);
Function of Pseudostratified nonciliated columnar epithelium
absorption and protection (nonciliated).
Keratinized variety forms superficial layer of skin; nonkeratinized variety lines wet surfaces, such as lining of the
mouth, esophagus, part of epiglottis, part of pharynx, and vagina, and covers the tongue.
Stratified squamous ep.
Function of Stratified squamous
Protection
Ducts of adult sweat glands and esophageal glands and part of male urethra. -
Stratified cuboidal ep
Fucntion of stratified cuboidal ep
Protection and limited secretion and absorption.
Lines part of urethra, large excretory ducts of some glands such as esophageal glands, small areas in anal mucous
membrane, and a part of the conjunctiva of the eye. –
Stratified coliumnar ep
Function of stratified columnar ep.
Protection and secretion.
Lines urinary bladder and portions of ureters and urethra. –
transitional
Function of transitional -
Permits distention
Pinocytosis
cell drinking
phagocytosis
cell eating
Cytoplasmic matrix - AKA Ground substance
structureless medium
contains fibrillar components
Inclusions
nonliving cell products - temporary constituents - fat, pigmented granuoles
Cell Membrane
AKA plasma membrane or plasmalemma
Endoplasmic Reticulum
AKA Chromoidial Substance or Ergastoplasm
Flat, sack like structures in the rough ER
cisternae
Function of Rough ER
protein sythesis
Fragments of rough ER referred to as
microsomes
Cristae
pleats in the inner mitochondrial membrane tha function to increase surface areas and efficiency
Matrix granule
most conspicuous item in the mitochondrial matrix
The cell picks up a foreign particle by phagocytosis and the resulting vacuole is a
phagosome
Heterophagic Vacuole or phagolysosome
the resulting vacuole when A lysosome is combined with a phagosome
morphogenesis, cell death autolysis
occurs in many disease processes due to the release of lysosomes. Also apoptosis
Micro-Bodies
AKA Peroxisome
Micro- Bodies
Small membrane lined vesicles, smaller than lysosomes, contain oxidative enzymes
Micro-bodies
protect the cell against hydrogen peroxie generated during oxidation
Found primarily in liver and kidney cells
Centrosome AKA centrosphere or cell center
contains centrioles
lies near nucleus
center of activity or cell division
Centrioles
when migrate to the cell surface, becomes a basal body AKA Kinetosome which gives rise to cilium or flagelum
Centrioles
Serve as centers of organiztion fo mircrotubules
found in most cells
Tubulin
protein that makes up microtubules
Neucleoplasm inside the nuclear region of the cell
AKA Sap or Karyoplasm
Heterochromatin
during interphase is coiled or condensed
Euchromatin
during interphase is dispersed
Function of chromatin
regulate metabolic activities of the cell
Nuclear division
karyokinesis
division of cytoplasm
cytokinesis
Interphase
process of synthesizing DNA
Structures develop
chromosomes replicate
NOT a resting phase
Prophase
chromosomes become visible
nucleolus will disappear
centrioles undergo reduplication and migrate to opposite poles of nucleus
Nuclear membrane begins to breakdow and disappear
Metaphase
Begins with the appearance of spindle fibers
chromosomes gather in the center along the equatorial plate
two types of fiber occur
-continuous fiber
-chromosomal fiber
Centromere AKA kinetochore
Anaphase
doubling of the centromere
separation of the chromatid from each chromosome
cleavage furrow starts to appear
Telophase
cleavage furro continues
nuclear membrane reforms
chromosome again uncoils and becomes indistinct
nucleolus reforms
At the end- two daughter cells with identical chromosomes of parent
Cell Cycle - S phase
Period of active DNA Synthesis
Lasts 6-8 hours
30-40% of cycle
Cell Cycle - G1 phase
period of active RNA and protein synthesis
Both the nucleus and cytoplasm of daughter cells enlarge
30-40% of cycle
Cell Cycle - G2 phase
period of no DNA synthesis
other preparations for division take place
10-20% of cycle
Cell Cycle - M phase
structural events which occur during mitosis
Karyokinesis and Cytokinesis
Cell Cycle - These all occur during interphase
G1, G2, S
First mitotic division
chromosome number is reduced - Reductional Division
Second mitotic division
Equatorial Division-
Five phases of prophase I of meosis
Leptotene
Zygotene
Pchytene
Diplotene
Diakenesis
Leototene
chromosomes are thin and threadlike
Zygotene
homologous chromosomes begin to pair and continues throughout this phase
Pachytene
shortening of the chromosomes (1/4 of their length in leptotene)
pairing of chromosomes are completed
Diplotene
intimiately paired chromosomes begin to repel each other and separate
chromosomes do nt completely separate, they remain joined at certain ponits wher two of the 4 chromatids form an X, the chiasmata
Exchange of genetic material
Nucleolous breaks down
Diakinesis
chrmosomes at max condensation
nuclear membrane breaks down
Anaphase 1 of meiosis
Homolougues break down
Interphase 2
Interkinesis No DNA replication
Prophase 2
Spindles appear as nuclear membrane breaks down
Metaphase 2
chromatid pairs of chromosomes line up on the equator
Annaphase 2
Centromeres duplicate and divide
chromatids of chromosomes separate and move to opposite poles
Telophase 2
spindles disappear
nuclear membrane reappears
cell membrane furrow forms
four cells result - haploid
Metacentric chromosome
arms approximately equal in length
centromere occurs in the middle of the chromosome
Submetracentric chromsome
unequal arms - L shaped
Acrocentric chromosome
chromosme is described as rod shaped, having a very small arm at one end.
Telocentric
described as rod-like and having a centromere situated at the proximal end
karyotype
the name given to the group of characteristics that identifies a particular chromosomal set.