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73 Cards in this Set

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Layers of the walls of the alimentary canal
1. Tunica mucosa.
2. Tunica submucosa.
3. Tunica muscularis externa.
4. Tunica serosa or adventitia.
Part of tunica mucosa.
Loose connective tissue; note large numbers of host defense cells)
Lamina propria
Part of tunica mucosa.(smooth muscle); very thin layer, typically 1-3 cells
Muscularis mucosae
Similar to a dense irregular connective tissue.
Carrys blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves to and from mucosa.
Tunica submucosa.
a. Circular (inner) layer (compression of a segment).
b. Longitudinal (outer) layer (shortening of a segment).
c. Function: Peristalsis, mixing, reverse peristalsis.
Tunica muscularis externa.
visceral peritoneum (simple squamous epi., or mesothelium, plus thin layer of C.T.)
Serosa
layer of C.T., transition to surrounding tissues. Found in retroperitoneal organs (e.g., Duodenum, Ascending or Descending colon), in the rectum, and esophagus.
Adventitia
Found in all simple (1-cell layered) epithelia.
Intraepithelial (single cell) glands (e.g., goblet cells).
Stem cells in glands reduce their chance of injury, allow faster repair if damaged.
Mucosal glands (simple tubular glands, e.g., crypts of the intestines).
duct to lumen or opening to mucosal gland; common in the esophagus and the 1st part of the duodenum
Submucosal glands
e.g., Salivary glands, pancreas, liver
External (Accessory) gland
a. Operates independently from the central nervous system, and from the rest of the peripheral nervous system.
b. Can be greatly influenced by Autonomic nervous system; parasympathetics increase intrinsic rate of peristalsis, secretion, vascular supply, etc., whereas Sympathetics decrease above.
enteric nervous system
Innervates glands, vessels, enteroendocrine cells, and muscularis musosae.
Submucosal (Meissner's) plexus
Innervates tunica muscularis and provides some secretomotor innervation to epithelia.
Myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus.
Open vs. closed APUD cells. ______ reach from base to lumen, and therefore pick up info. from lumen,
Open cells
Open vs. closed APUD cells.
________ are only along basal lamina, and do not extend to the lumen.
closed cells
Endocrine vs. paracrine
_______ secretes to bloodstream
Endocrine
Endocrine vs. paracrine ________ secretes into local epithelial areas or adjacent loose C.T. only. Most APUD cells in the gut are
paracrine
Lymph vessels and lacteals. ________ are enlarged lymph capillaries in villi
Lacteals
Lymph vessels and lacteals. __________ are found everywhere else.
typical lymph capillaries
Types of gut lymphoid tissues
Solitary Lymph Nodules, Peyer's Patches, Appendix.
First order folds
rugae, plicae
Second order folds
villi
Third order folds
microvilli
Pharynx divisions:
a.Nasopharynx
b. Oropharynx.
c. Laryngopharynx
Pharynx epithelium
stratified squamous nonkeratinized
Pharynx Lamina Propria modification
seromucous glands
pharynx muscular layer
skeletal muscle
piriform recess exists where
Laryngopharynx
Esophagus Epithelium:
stratified squamous nonkeratinizing.
Esophagus Lamina propria Modification
Cardiac glands (in uppermost and lowermost parts of esophagus).
Esophagus Submucosa modifications
deep (esophageal) glands
Esophagus Muscularis externa modifications:
upper 1/3, skeletal muscle. Middle 1/3, mixed skeletal and smooth. Lower 1/3, smooth muscle only.
Stomach Epithelium
simple columnar, mucus secreting surface cells, with pits and glands.
Stomach Modifications to Lamina propria
highly cellular with frequent eosinophils
Stomach to Muscularis externa contains THREE layers
inner oblique, middle circular, and outer longitudinal.
Pyloric sphincter is an enlargement of the _____ muscle layer.
circular
Pit gastric glands
surface mucous cells
Isthmus gastric glands
mucous and parietal cells
Neck gastric glands
mucous neck cells, stem cells, and parietal cells.
Base gastric glands
zymogenic (chief) cells & parietal cells
many mucous granules (except in isthmus, where mucous granules are few).
Surface mucous cells
some mucous granules.
Mucous neck cells:
found in neck of gland; source of replacement cells.
Stem cells
zymogenic granules (pepsin).
Chief cells
HCl, intrinsic factor. NB, cannulliculus, numerous mitochondria.
Parietal cells:
eosinophilic secretion on basal surface of cell. Secretions include Seratonin, Gastrin, enteroglucagon, Somatostatin, VIP, endorphin, substance P.
Enteroendocrine (APUD) cells:
in cardia; shallow pits; glands just as deep as pits. mucous and parietal cells.
Cardiac glands:
in pylorus; deep pits; glands just as deep as pits, but tortuous. mucous and parietal cells.
Pyloric glands:
in fundis and body; pits shallow; glands 2-3 times as deep as pits. chief and parietal cells.
Gastric/Fundic glands:
Small Intestine Epithelium
simple columnar epithelium, with goblet cells and columnar absorptive cells (enterocytes).
Small Intestine: Modifications to Lamina propria
Highly cellular, with numerous IgA-producing plasma cells
Small Intestine: Modifications to villous structure:
lymphatic lacteals
Small Intestine: Modifications to Mucous glands (crypts of Lieberkuhn)
Immature goblet and absorptive cells (capable of division)
APUD cells
Stem cells
Paneth cells
Duodenal regional variations.
Submucosal (Brunner's) glands
Jejunum: small Intestine Regional variations.
Tallest villi and plicae.
Ileum: small Intestine Regional variations.
Decreasing size of villi and plicae. Peyer's Patches
long microvilli, containing bound digestive enzymes. Also note morphologic changes in fat absorption.
Enterocytes (columnar absorptive cells)
scattered, found in upper crypt and villous surface. Note massive accumulation of apical mucus, and small, dense nucleus toward base.
Goblet cells
many types, both endocrine and paracrine function.
APUD cells
Found at base of crypt. Serous cells (lysozyme, possible EGF). Probable host defense function.
Paneth cells
immature mucous cells
Oligomucous cells:
found in crypt just above Paneth cell layer. large, light-staining nucleus. Gives rise to all other epithelial cells.
Stem cells:
Peyers Patches: Germinal Centers
primarily B-cells
Peyers Patches: Interfollicular cells
mostly T-cells
Few goblet cells. Microfold (M-) cells. Intra-epitelial lymphocytes.
Follicle-associated epithelium
Peyer’s Patches Functions.
Generate IgA in response to microbes
Large Intestine Epithelium.
simple columnar cells
large numbers of mucous cells in crypts
Large Intestine modification: submucosa
plica semilunares, sacculations (haustrae)
Large Intestine modifications: Muscularis externa
tenia coli
small, reduced, wormlike. Large number of LYMPHATIC NODULES
Appendix
full longitudinal layer of smooth muscle.
Rectum
Abrupt transition to stratified squamous epithelium below valves.
Anal canal