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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Digestive Tract
long tube extending from mouth to anus.
Associated glands
located outside of tube and deliver secretions into it via ducts
Digestion is accomplished by:
1) cutting & grinding of teeth
2) action of HCl & hydrolytic enzymes.
Lip: external aspect
1) covered by skin containing hair and sweat and sebaceous glands.
2) keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Lip: internal aspect
1) non-keratinized strat'd squamous epithelium
2) lamina propria: lots of (mucous) glands
3) numerous sensory endings present
Lip: free margin
1) located between external and internal aspects
2) thick STRATUM LUCIDUM- renders it more transparent
3) high papillae in underlying dermis w/rich capillary plexus
4) no glands present - must lick to keep moist.
Lip: vermillion border
1) transition between keratinized and non-keratinized epithelium
2) usually on the free margin
sulcus terminalis -
V-shaped groove; separates anterior 2/3rds of tongue from
posterior 1/3rd.
filiform papillae
a) arranged in rows parallel to s. terminalis
b) 2-3 mm in height
c) partially keratinized
fungiform papillae
a) good blood supply - can appear red
b) mushroom-shaped
c) disposed singly among rows of filiform; more numerous at tip of tongue
d) some contain TASTE BUDS on dorsum
circumvallate (vallate)papillae
a) 7-12 in region of s. terminalis
b) TASTE BUDS present on lateral portion
c) numerous glands of Von Ebner; glands function to remove debris so new
stimuli can be received. Empty into trough surrounding papilla.
Location of Taste Buds
a. vallate papillae
b. fungiform papillae (some)
c. glossopalatine arch
d. epiglottis
e. palate
Taste bud supporting (sustentacular) cells:
Taste bud neuroepithelial taste cells
darker-staining; 4-16 in each taste bud; short taste
hairs project into pore or opening of taste bud.
Taste bud basal cells -
function as stem cells
Function - production of saliva
a. LUBRICATES buccal mucosa
b. WASHES oral cavity
c. MOISTENS food
d. BUFFERS acidity
Parotid gland: cellular components (by volume)
1) secretory cells - 90%
2) striated ducts - 5%
3) other - 5%
Submandibular gland: cellular components (by volume)
1) serous cells - 80%
2) mucous cells - 5%
3) striated ducts - 5%
4) other - 10%
Sublingual gland: cellular components (by volume)
1) serous cells - 30%
2) mucous cells - 60%
3) striated ducts - 3%
4) other - 7%
parasympathetics -
produce copious secretion
sympathetics -
diminishes secretion thru vasoconstriction
deciduous teeth
a) 5 in each 1/2 jaw = 20
b) formula: I2/2 C1/1 DM2/2
c) 1st erupt 6-7 mo. post-partum; complete by 2 years
d) shed between 6-13 yrs; replaced by permanent set
permanent teeth
a) 8 in each 1/2 jaw = 32
b) formula: I2/2 C1/1 P2/2 M3/3
c) I = incisors; C = canines; P = premolars; M = molars
periodontal ligament (PDL):
made up of dense C.T.
Dentin produced by _______
incremental lines (of Von Ebner)
- rhythmic deposition of dentin
mainly calcium
phosphate in form of apatite crystals: Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2.
enamel formed by _________
enamel prisms:
1) structural unit of enamel
2) interprismatic substance - "glues" prisms together
3) organic material is neither collagen nor keratin; is rich
in proline; cross beta configuration.
lines of Retzius -
rhythmical deposition of enamel
Sharpey's fibers
coarse fibers of periodontal ligament enter cementum as _________
1) initiation
2) proliferation
3) histodifferentiation - devel. of different cell types
4) morphodifferentiation - formation of tooth outline (prior to laying down of
enamel and dentin)
5) apposition - laying down of ground substance and calcification
6) eruption
physiological processes in dvlpment of teeth
1) dental lamina
2) tooth bud (tooth primordium)
3) cap stage (differential proliferation of bud)
4) bell stage
morphological stages of tooth dvlpmt
1) dental lamina
a) concentration of mesenchymal cells along future dental arch
b) epithelial cells undergo rapid mitoses producing downgrowth into
underlying mesenchyme; formsing a ridge = dental lamina; separated from
mesenchyme by a basement membrane
tooth bud (tooth primordium)
a) enamel organ
b) 20 oval swellings arise from dental lamina (10 each jaw): connected to
surface epith. by dental lamina
3) cap stage (differential proliferation of bud)
a) bud continues to proliferate
b) unequal growth of bud leads to formation of shallow invagination on deep
surface of bud
c) condensed mesenchyme in depression of cap proliferates: forms dental
d) mesenchyme condenses around periphery of enamel organ; will form
dental sac
e) enamel organ begins to differentiate into inner and outer enamel
epithelium (low columnar to cuboidal)
4) bell stage
odontoblasts induce differentiation of inner enamel epithelium
into ameloblasts
odontoblasts induce differentiation of inner enamel epithelium
into __________