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91 Cards in this Set

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What are the parts of Psychology?
Philosophy and Physiology.
What is the meaning of Zeitgeist.
The intellectual and cultural or climate or spirit of the times. What we consider knowledge must be accepted by a culture.
Who was the 1st Black man to receive a PHd, and went on to become President of Howard University?
Francis Sumner earned his Phd at Clark University.
Who believed that snakes were gods; and what type of thinking was this?
The Mayas. This why of thinking was called, Anthromorphism; people trying to make sense out of actions or behavior.
Anthropomorphism is a type of what?
Transference; trying to get into someone else's experience.
Who tried to prove physical being?
Thales and Heraclites.
What was Thales one physics being.
The one basic element for Thales was water.
What was the one important element for Heraclites.
Fire, because everthing changes, and fire is contining to change.
What is Mechanism.
The image of the universe as a great machine. This doctrine held that all natural processes are mechanically determined and are capable of being explaned by the laws of physics and chemistry.
What was the Contextual forces of the 17th century?
Mechanism. the idea came from the Italian physicist Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton. (Clockmaker)
According to Galileo what was matter made up of?
Atoms that affected one another by direct contact.
According to Newton what was matter?
Atoms that communicated not by actual physical contact but by forces that acted to attract and repel the atoms.
What's the meaning of Determinism?
The belief that every act is determined or caused by past event.
What is reductionism?
The working of machines such as clocks could be understood by reducing them to their basic components. Similarly, we could understand the physical universe.
What did Plato consider the soul to be?
The soul contained all knowledge, because when that person died the soul goes to another body. Therefore, that soul is forever.
What's Allegreyos?
Shadows on the wall, those are the untrue thoughts.
What is a Monist?
A person that believes in one part.
What's Epistemology.
The best why according to Plato to know things, what you feel is right, not experience.
What's Psychophysical?
Platos' theory on the soul, which leads to reflection; which mean what the truth is.
What did Aristotle believe?
Instead of reflection he believed in rationalism and experience, which forms the learning blocks (empirism).
Which did Aristotle said you needed the most? Rationalism, or Empiricsm?
He said you needed both, Rationalism and Empiricm= Laws of assocation.
What is the meaning of Contiguity.
Because the frequency of a action occurs 9 times out of 10 it must be true. e.g. Rain and tunder.
What did Aristotle think about Platos' theory on body and soul?
He tried to resolved.
What did Plato think about Aristotle theory on contiguity?
Plato believed you should trust your sense.
What did Rene Descartes think of Platos' theory on body and soul?
That they acted interacted with each other. The mind and the body work together.
What was the Hollow tube theory?
Descartes theory on how the body worked.
What was the reflex theory? Also, who's theory was it?
The theory that an external object can bring about an involuntary response. e.g.(A hot stove touch your hand you jump). Rene Descartes.
Where did Descartes said that knowledge come from?
There's two parts.
1. Innated ideals = instincts
2. Derived ideals = Learned experience
This all comes from the reflex action theory.
What part of the brain could Descartes could not find?
The Conarium which is the Pineal gland.
How did Psychologists try to prove derived ideals later?
By using Mechanism, empiricism, and reductionism.
What do British empiricists and associationists agree on?
They both believe in derived ideals. They Also, believe in observation learning and rules for combining our experiences
By the the 20th century,how many women had earned a doctoral degree.
20
What part of the brain control expressive language?
Broca's area. The third frontal convolution of the left hemisphere.
Who was the Father of the Associationists? and what was his beliefs?
Thomas Hobbles; a materialist, Empiricist, and Associationists. His theory was; there's no mind, soul, or God. You must be able to touch it.
Who stated that whole is greater than the sum of it's parts?
John Stuart Mills
What's Mental Chemistry?
1. Experimental Psyc
2. Ethology - Study of people in their natural environment.
James Mill theory on determine causality.
If X then Y causality. If not X then no Y.
What was Johannes Merler known for?
Special energy within the brain. He also, stated the opt nerve and Audion nerve.
Who is Herman Helimbulte?
Stated that Merler was correct in his thinking on everything except the energy part. He also, invent the Law consternation of energy for Bio systems at the age 19. Also investigated speed of nerve. And reaction time.
Who was Ramony Casal?
He said that neuron was the base.
What was Descartes "mind and body problem?
The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualites.
Derived and innate ideals?
Derived ideals are external stimulus, and innate ideals arise from the mind are consciousness, independent of sensory motors.
Positivism?
Auguste Comte, theory that recognizes only natural phenomena or facts that are objectively observable.
John Locke veiw of the mind acquiring knowledge?
The mind acqired knowledge through experience
Materialism?
Considers the facts of the the universe to be sufficiently explained in physical terms by the existence and nature of matter.
Who said that the neuron was base net, which made up the neuron "neural net" the smallest unit?
Camillo Colgi
Who discovered the gap in between the Synape?
Sherritoton
Who discovered electrical stimulation.
Hilzig
What do the they control?
1.Hindbrain
2.Midbrain
3.Cerellum
4.Cortex
1.respiration
2.Vision and auditory
3.Coordination
4.Thought
Who said facial expression are you cognitive thought.
Paul Eckman.
What is the Clinical method?
Exam of the brain to detect damaged areas assumed to be responsible for behavior condition that existed before the person death.
Who proposed a science of Phrenology "bumps in the head"?
Franz Josef Gall.
Who took apart a spinal cord and cut it, to discover that there's two sets of nerves, one for sensory and motor / input and output.
Bell and Maserdie
What was Ernst Weber known for?
Mapping out the body, and two point threshold (the distance between to points that people reports feeling. Also the "Just Notice difference"
What is Weber's Law?
The first perstitive Law in Psychology.
What's Fechner Law?
Student must increase geametrically in order for the psychology world (perception)to increase arithmetically.
What was the finding date of Psychology?
1879.
What was Wenst first experiment, and who was it performed on?
A clock and bell he tried to notice the bell ringing and the position of the arm hitting the bell it wasn't possible. It was performed on himself.
What was Locke two kinds of experiences?
One derive from sensation the other from reflection. Sensory input and then the mind reflects on it to learn.
What was details of Donders experment? And what was it called?
People would watch light bulb, when the light bulb came on people was asked to hit the button and pick the letter C out of a series of letters, while being timed. The time determined how long it took the make an discrination between the two. It was called "Mental Chronometry".
What's association?
The notion that knowledge results from linking or associating simple ideals to from complex ideals.
Who was nomnated twice for an noble peace prize?
Wundit
What did Wundit what to teach people?
Introspection.
What was Mediate?
Records in the indirect; he wanted immediate the direct.
What did Wundit want the students to tell him?
Sensation = Affective states
Intensity = Duration
Wanted the students to tell him when they notice the smallest change in either.
What did Wundit believe the mind must do first.
It had to be be active first, in other words you had to want to be attentive, which came out to be "Voluntarism" the first school of Psychology. You must be willing to retain the information.
Stumpf and Kulpe
Phenomendogical?
I set the rules you give Yes or No answers.
What was Georg Muller and Schuman known for?
The Memory drum.
What Wundt Retro and Proactive learning?
Retro is when the list is learned and repeated. Proactive is when the list is learned and then another is learned and you are asked to repeat the first list.
What are the two types of Psychology test?
MMPI = Forced answer
Rorsch = You tell me the answer.
What are Primary and Secondary qualites according to Locke?
Primary is objective; the size and shape of a building, Secondary is perception; the color and smell of the building.
What is mentalism?
The theory that perception is a fuction of mental phenomena and dependent on the experiencing person. My perception is my own.
David Hume was famed for what?
Treatise of Human nature.
What was Hume two laws of association?
Resemlance or Similarity, Contiguity in time or place.
What was Hume two types of mental content?
Impressions and ideals. Impression is the perception and ideal are the mental expressions in the absence of any object.
What is introspection?
The examination of ones own mental state. Personal thougts or feelings
What is the school of thought?
A group of psychologists who become associated ideologically, and sometimes geographically, with the leader of a movement.
What's Structuralism?
System of Psychology that dealt with conscious experence as dependent on experiencing persons.
What's Functionalism?
A form of Psychology concerned with the mind as how it adaptation to it's enviroment.
Behaviorism?
Watson's science of behavior and how it could be observable behavioral acts that could be describled in objective terms.
Gestalt Psychology?
A learning Psychology, that focus on perception, combining sensory elements produces new patterns with properties that did not exist in the individual elements.
Psychoanalysis?
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality and system of psychotherpy.
Who was the Big Four of Psychology? Who also was credited with expermental methods to the mind.
Wundit
Helimholte
Weber
Fechner
What are the four Contextual Forces in Psychology?
1. Zeigeist
2. Economic Opportunity
3. War
4. Discrimination
Who was the first female to serve as the APA President?
In 1905 Mary Calkins was the 1st. Dorothy Cantor was the eighth woman, and Norine Johnson was the ninth.
What University provided psychology for black students?
Howard University in Washington D.C. known as the black Harvard.
Who was Kenneth Clark?
Served as the APA President in 1971.
What the Personalistic Theory?
That progress and change is attributed to the ideals of unique individuals.
What's Naturalistic Theory?
That progress and change is because of the Zeitgist.
Who was John Garcia?
In 1970 he tried to publish the results of his (S-R) learning theory. The Zeitgeist wasn't ready for it.
Humanistic Psychology.
Psychology that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human nature.