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79 Cards in this Set

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Congress of Vienna
England, Prussia, Austria, Russia, France
• Lights:
oPrince Klemens Metternich (Austria)
oTsar Alexander I (Russia)
Prince Talleyrand (France)
• Agendas:
o Russia wants to dominate Poland (Duchy of Warsaw)
o Prussian expansionist desires
o France seeks readmission to the European community of nations, made alliance with Austria
• France gained territory
• Russia got Finland and part of Poland
• Restored order and reestablished balance of power (only 2 major wars in Europe for rest of 19th century)
Concert of Europe
Russia, Austria, Prussia, Great Britain and France
Dedicated to stability and harmony in Europe
Crushed revolt in Italian Piedmont, 1821
Restored order in Spain in 1823
Decembrists uprising
attempt to get a constitutional democracy, crushed by Nicholas I (“Big Stick,” reactionary)
• Why European nations supported the Greek rebellion against Turkey
o Christian revolt against Moslem masters
o Romanticized in the press
o Realpolitik
• Charles X
o Reactionary
o Tried to indemnify aristocrats who had fled
o Tried to return Catholic church to place of prominence
o July Ordinances – dissolved French legislative body
o Overthrown
June Days Revolt
o Redistribution of wealth
o Middle class wanted to keep property so didn’t make alliance with poor
o Crushed by army
Revolution of 1848 in France
• Upper bourgeoisie working with government
• Only 3% of males can vote
• Aristocracy open to middle class advancement
• Gap between upper bourgeoisie and urban poor (class structure based on economics)
• Government friendly to business, supported status quo
• Louis Philippe abdicated and France became a republic when lower class had an uprising
• New government reflected middle class interests but no sympathy for poor
Factors militating against German unity (1848)
Traditional role of princes (follow their religion)
Religious divisions between Protestants and Catholics
Small middle class
No industry
Landed aristocracy supporting status quo (Junkers)
Military drawn from landed aristocracy
Economic factors
Louis Blanc
o Utopian socialist
o Established national workshops (welfare)
Revolution of 1848 in Prussia
o Berlin revolt
o Frankfurt Assembly
 Unified and liberal Germany
 Represented intellectual elites
 Frederich William crushed resistance
o Stayed authoritarian, liberalism didn’t catch on
o State attached to an army
Revolution of 1848 in Austria
o Ruled by autocrats
o “Sick man of Europe”
o Metternich supported Habsburg regime
o Austro-Hungarian Empire burst into violence
o Joseph promised a constitution
o Challenges
 Czech students demanded constitution and equal status for Czech language, in Vienna students and workers led a revolt, resulted in conservative constitution
 Hungarians (Magyars – 45% of population) led by Louis Kossuth – demanded autonomy, Joseph sent in army of Croats and Nicholas I sent in Russian troops
Revolution of 1848 in Italy
• Milan and Lombardy revolted against Austro-Hungarians but they were crushed
• Disorder in Rome – proclamation of Roman republic
• Pope fled and asked France to intervene
• Habsburgs continued to rule in Northern Italy
Reform in Great Britain
• Admitted Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants to universities
• Abolished slavery in 1833
• Reform Act of 1832 – extended suffrage to middle class for men of property
• Towns granted more autonomy in 1835
"Free" Monarchy in Britain
• Secure monarchy
• Aristocracy dominated political process
• Diverse aristocracy composed of landed gentry, industrialists, businessmen and professionals
Chartists
o First real effort for political reform
o Working class movement
o Demanded universal manhood suffrage
o Favored secret ballot
o Favored abolition of property qualifications for elected offices
Willingness to Deal in Britain
• Tradition of crown and aristocracy working together
• Extended slowly beyond aristocracy
• More power to the people
• Liberal and progressive government
• Education, class, geography isolated England from revolts
Why Did 1848 Revolutions Fail?
A. Fear Factor
• Fear of repeat of 1789
• Willingness of elite to make concessions
• Use of force to retain power
B. Class Divisions
• Bourgeois liberals had property interests
• Lower classes had needs
C. Ethnic Divisions
• Nationalism had great appeal
• Common socioeconomic needs
• Deep-seated hatred
D. Common Interests
• Ruling elites were mostly conservative Christians
• Retaining power meant more than other interests
Kinds of Races
o Caucasians
• Indo-Europeans
• Semites
o Negroid
o Mongoloid – Asians, American Indians
Elements of a Successful Revolution
A. Organized, Disciplined Leadership
B. Popular Ideology
• At least a third of the people will be devoted to
C. Broad Base of Support
D. Sanctuaries
• Valley Forge for Washington
E. Military forces to Wage War
Changes in Warfare in 19th Century
A. Clausewitz
• “War is an act of force to compel the enemy to do our will.”
• Hatred, violence, enmity
• State (policy), army (carries out policy), people (support policy, comprise army)
• Political objectives are key in war
• Always communicate with enemy
Realism
• Reaction to Romanticism
• Focus on identifiable and empirical
• Realistic art and literature
o Ivan Turgenyev – Sportsman Sketches, Fathers and Sons
o Leo Tolstoy – War and Peace
Naturalism
• Evolved out of realism
• Relationship between human character and social environment
• Influenced by Scientific Revolution and IR
Positivism
• Philosophical system
Auguste Comte
• Knowledge is based on observable, factual
• Empirical thinkers
• Karl Marx
Auguste Comte and Law of 3 Stages
o Wanted to transform society into authoritarian state
o Leaders of science would be leaders
o Law of 3 Stages
 Theological
• From pre-civilization to Enlightenment
 Metaphysical
• Enlightenment
 Scientific
• Penultimate stage of human development
o Religion unifies culture and gives an emotional outlet
o Proposed a new religion – devoid of theology and supernatural
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
• Father of anarchism
• More of a reactionary than a revolutionary
Mikhail Bakunin
• Darker side of anarchism that resorts to terrorism
• Revolutionary throughout Europe
• Formed Social Democratic Alliance
• The Anarchist Creed
• World without laws
The Liberal Response to 19th Century Thought
• Traditionally wanted state out of economy
• Supported children’s rights, anti-slavery, etc.
• Government could play a positive role in protecting the individual
• British liberals began backing social legislation
John Stuart Mill
• Essay on Liberty
• Changed his views to state promoting collective good
Thomas Hill Green
• Real freedom is in government ensuring well-being
• Views of present day realism
• Laissez faire would allow for exploitation
Herbert Spencer
• Rejected all forms of state interference, thought it would lead to paternalism
• Dependent class would be created
• Man versus State – Evils could be addressed by state action
• Least intrusive state actions
• Opposed to regulating quality of food and drugs
• Feared expanding government role
• Socialism would lead to slavery because it would create a dependent class
Sigmund Freud
• Civilization and Its Discontents
• Every person is an enemy of civilization
• Coercion is necessary because:
o People are not fond of work
o Passion often overrules reason
• The bare fact is that truth cannot be tolerant and cannot admit compromise or limitations, that scientific research looks on the whole filed of human activity as its own, and must adopt an uncompromisingly critical attitude toward other power that seek to usurp any part of its province
• Three forces that threaten science
o Art
o Philosophy
o Religion
Freud and Religion
• Religion is an attempt to get control over the sensory world in which we are place, by means of the wish-world which we have developed inside us as a result of biological and psychological necessities.
• Religion mollifies the working class
• Man comes to terms with the power of nature
Types of Religion (Sacrilizing Nature)
 Animism
• Spirits in everything
 Polytheism
• Lots of gods mostly of forces
• Somewhat resemble man
 Henotheism
• Gods with human attributes
o Aphrodite, Hermes, Helena
• Many gods ruled by one god
o Zeus or Baal
 Monotheism
• One God
• Conceptualized as “Providence” then “Father God”
Threefold Task for Religion (Freud)
o Exorcise the terror from nature
o Reconcile man to the cruelty of fate
o Compensate us for suffering in this world with the promise of bliss in the next
Natural Selection
• Points from Origin of the Species
o All organisms descended from a single primordial form
o The compulsion to reproduce
 Malthus
o Differences + environmental affects probabilities of survival
 Favored characteristics are passed on
• Natural selection not only prompts changes within a species but leads to new species
Darwin and Christianity
• Darwin was an agnostic, not an atheist
• Argued against specific design from an intelligent being
• Basis of 6-day creationism is that with God anything is possible
• Argument for God creating through evolution takes a bigger view of God and his capabilities to operate outside time
Social Darwinism
• Survival of the fittest has been used to justify atrocities
• It’s good for businesses to grow and swallow up smaller ones
• Fed imperialism – duty of stronger (white) races to raise up weaker races
• An excuse for racism
• Behind the American Eugenics Society who wanted to sterilize undesirables
Marxism Basics
• Comes out of the Enlightenment
• Hegelian dialectic
• Dialectic materialism
• Economics moves history
• Along with Engels published Communist Manifesto
• Moved to England and wrote Das Kapital
History According to Marxism
• History of mankind is a history of struggles (between rulers and oppressed)
• Middle class triumphed over feudal system
o Created synthesis (bourgeois vs. proletariat)
o This conflict would result in synthesis of new social order – classless society
• Believed this revolution was imminent because more people would be forced into wage-earning class (proletariat) because of capitalism and Industrial Revolution
Class Conflict and the Role of Party in Marxism
• Class struggle fuels dialectic
• Bourgeoisie is like sorcerer who can no longer control the powers he has called forth
• Socialist party must be the unifying force in guiding the proletariat
• The Dictatorship of the Proletariat
o In Marxist terms, the dictatorship of the proletariat is the temporary continuation of state power after the revolution. Eventually there will be no need of government because government is based on class interest. When class interests recede classes will also and, therefore it follows the state will wither away. (Lenin, The State and Revolution)
Religious Appeal of Marxism
• Has been most appealing in third world countries
• Apocalyptic battle – similar to Judeo-Christian interpretation of history
The Failed Religion of Marxism
o Marx believed revolution must be in industrialized countries, but this did not occur
o No nations have moved beyond dictatorship of the proletariat
o Communist governments have only remained in charge by force
Carboneria
Resistance against Austrian rule
Mazzini
o Founded Young Italy – more of a national and people’s movement for a free Italy
o Duties of Man
Neo-Guelf Movement
• Papacy is best uniting movement
• Pope Pius IX
o Issued limited social and political reforms
• Prompted Austrian invasion
• Pope fled in fear of violence
Garibaldi
Leader of Red Shirts - Sicilians
Victor Emmanuel II
King of Sardinia
Crimean War of 1855-56
Italy aligned with England and France
German Reform and Reaction: 1806-1848
• Prussia was becoming more closely linked to Germany
• Weakest country in Europe
• Emerging proletariat movement
• Acquired Rhineland in 1815, allowed them to enter IR
• Political conservatism
Frederick William III
fought against conservatism
Frederick William IV
divine right of monarch
Wilhelm I
Professionalize Prussian army
Conservative
Industrial age warfare
Bismarck as chancellor
Bismarck
 Supported military reform
 Prussian army key to uniting Germany
 Connected general staff to king
 General staff studied enemy and made war plans
Danish War: 1864
• Issue: Schleswig and Holstein declared part of Denmark
• Austria and Prussia declared war
• Real reason: Try out the Prussian army
• Quick victory raised high degree of patriotism
• Expansion of military
Austrian War: 1866
• Issue: Future of Schleswig-Holstein
• Real reason: Prussia’s desire for hegemony among Germanic states in order to establish unity
• Lasted seven weeks
• Prussia won easily
o Organized army
o New weapons
o General staff planned well
• Decisive battle – Konnigratz, July 3, 1866
Franco-Prussian War: 1870-71
• Issue: Hohenzollern on the throne of Spain, France objected
• Real reason: Prussian hegemony in Western Europe
• Prussians took out MacMahon
• France abandoned imperialism and became a republic
• Decisive battles: Siege of Metz, Battle of Sedan, Siege of Paris
• No food in Paris, so Prussians had to surrender
• Treaty of Frankfurt
o German force could remain in France until indemnity paid
o France lost Alsace and Lorraine to Germany
Prison House of Nations
• Rich in diversity
• Austro-Hungarian Empire – two different rules in united empire
• Problems for minorities
George von Schonerer
Leader of Sudeten Germans
Otto Spangler
German spirit and superiority
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Deutsche Volkstrum - greater Germany
Mixing races greatest threat
Stewart Chamberlain
o Adopted German citizenship
o Pseudo-scientific method for proving German superiority
o Foundations of the Nineteenth Century
o Proclaimed that Jesus was Aryan, not Jewish
Protocols of the Elders of Zion
• Written by Russian secret police
• Jewish plots for world domination
• Jewish economic and political control
Otto Boeckel
o Die Juden die Konig Unserer Zeit
o Germany’s future depended on being free from Jews
o Founded anti-Semitic People’s party
Hitler's Mein Kampf
o Written while in prison for treason
o Pseudo-science
o Nature and breeding within species
o It’s wrong for weaklings to survive
o Notion of dominance
 Pyramid with fuehrer at top
o Aryans’ willingness to extend family into state
o Pflichterflungen
 Higher ideal, becoming part of something greater
o Jews never had a culture of their own
o No Jewish art
Why Industrial Explosion?
• Larger populations
• More capable workers
• Advent of managerial force
• Abundant capital (growing middle class)
Growth of Consumerism
• Europe’s population increased dramatically
o Curtailed epidemics
o Improved medical procedures
o Better diets (refrigeration)
• Rise of personal credit (previously looked down upon for lending or borrowing)
• Readymade items available, drove prices down
Rise of Managerial Elite
• Management became a science
• Measurable productivity
• Mission to increase productivity
o Better training
o Utilization of talents
o Better working conditions
• Originally managers worked their way up
• Then people went to school for management
Nietzsche
• Atheistic Existentialism
• Struggle between Apollo and Dionysus = struggle between mind and will
• Didn’t believe all that Darwin said
• Society is getting weaker and devolving
• Individual striving for excellence
• Blamed Christianity for decadence, makes weakness a virtue
• War offered opportunity for strong to prevail
• Life is about more than survival
• Individually (from Enlightenment)
• Father of exaltation of the individual
Nietzsche's Superman
o Answers to no one but himself
o Leader, not a follower
o Normal rules do not apply to him
o Life is not about survival, it’s about excelling
o Embodiment of power
o Natural nobility
Georges Sorel
• French social theorist
• Political potential of irrational
• Proletariat would rescue society from decadence
• Believed that working person was noble
• Sorel’s dialectic was between passivity and action
• Violence purified the struggle (heritage from French Revolution)
• Understood the power of myth in uniting people
• General strike would bring the revolution
Emile Durkheim
Founder of modern sociology
Looking for a replacement for Christian morality
Vilfredo Pareto
o Divided society into elite and masses
o Democracy really rule of a small group
o Leaders would use myth and emotion to sway people
Gustave Le Bon
o People lose their rationality, inhibition, etc. in a crowd
o The group acquires a collective mind and will move to a lower level
o Instances where group mentality takes over
 My Lai Massacre (Vietnam)
 Abu Grahib
 Gang rapes
 Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood
o Psychologies des Foules
Max Plank
Quantum physics
Fruits of Imperialism
• Boer War begins British imperial decline
• Spain loses Cuba, Philippines and Puerto Rico to US in 1898
• Germany loses all colonies in 1918
• US becomes mired in Philippine instability and “godfather” for Cuba/Haiti
• British “defense” focuses on imperial control from 1918 to 1939
• Growth of nationalism in French Indochina
Factors Contributing to Imperialism
• European industries matured
• Imperialism: The Highest Form of Capitalism (Lenin)
• Public opinion
o Fed nationalism
• Christian missionary impulse
• International competition and security concerns
o Germany’s rise to power
o England, France and Russia want to show they are “still powerful”
• Trade unions
o Markets mean more production and better pay
• Scientific progress enabled it
o Improved medical and health methods
o Advances in transportation and communications
 Steam ships
 Railroads
 Telegraph
Definition of Imperialism
Imperialism is any form of control or influence by one state over other nations, territories or groups of peoples.
Berlin Conference, 1884
o Called by Bismarck
o Laid down rules for colonizing Africa
o King Leopold II of Belgium got the Congo
o France got North Africa
o Britain got Egypt (Suez Canal)
o Germany got Cameroon and others
o Working toward end of African’s slavery
Sitrep 1905
o Realpolitik rules (Balance of power)
o England fears German naval expansion
o Cold War between France and Germany continues
o England and France pin “Double Entente” in 1903
o Russia intent on gaining the Bosporus
o Russian Pan-Slavism alarms Austria-Hungary
o Industrialization and imperialism continue